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Gene and DNA Sequence Registry

The BCH Gene Registry provides summary information on gene inserts and characteristics of the genetic modifications of the LMOs registered in the BCH.

Record ID Name Trait(s) Donor organism Function
101942 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Arthrobacter globiformis - Arthrobacter
The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
100266 Legumin B4 gene promoter
 
Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
 
102165 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 3
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
The Resistance gene is a member of the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site - Leucine Rich Repeat) class and codes for a protein that recognise specific proteins - termed elicitor proteins - of Phytophthora infestans the causing agent of late-blight disease. ...
100274 (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Carbohydrates
 
This chimeric, synthetic gene produces a thermostable (1,3-1,4)-ß-glucanase that has the ability to depolymerise glucans in the aleurone and endosperm during germination of cereal seeds (caryopses).
102612 16S rRNA gene promoter
 
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
 
102615 16S rRNA gene promoter
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
15012 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid synthase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
The ACC gene encodes for the carnation 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis which affects the rate of ripening in plants.
15014 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid synthase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC
The ACC gene encodes a truncated copy of the tomato 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase encoding gene in order to suppress expression of the endogenous unmodified gene (which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis) through gene silencing.
15013 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Pseudomonas chlororaphis - PSECL
The ACCD gene encodes the enzyme ACCD. In the plant, this enzyme catalyzes metabolism of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-arboxylic acid (ACC), an essential precursor for the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene.
103622 27kD gamma-zein Promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104339 2xOCS:35S Promoter
 
 
 
15033 3"(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase
Resistance to antibiotics - Streptomycin
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The aadA gene confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics such as spectinomycin and streptomycin. The enzyme adenylates either the 3’-hydroxy on the amino-hexose III ring of streptomycin or the 9-hydroxyl on the actinamine ring of spectinomycin Typically used as a marker gene.
104793 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene
Resistance to herbicides
Pseudomonas fluorescens - PSEFL
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) catalyses the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate which is the aromatic precursor of tocopherol and plastoquinone, which are essential to the photosynthetic transport chain and antioxidative systems. This reaction involves decarboxylation, substituent migration and aromatic oxygenation in a single catalytic cycle. ...
103900 4ocs∆Mas2’ promoter
 
 
 
100354 5' untranslated leader from chlorophyll a/b-binding protein
 
Triticum aestivum - Wheat
 
103886 5' Untranslated Leader of AMV RNA4
 
Alfalfa mosaic virus - Alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV
 
101901 5' untranslated leader of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
101026 5’e1 promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
103911 5126del Anther Specific Promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104947 5'e1 Leader
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
15000 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
45463 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
45913 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Involved in EPSP biosynthesis. The aroA gene, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase , an enzyme of the common aromatic biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. ...
14979 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
The cp4 epsps gene encodes for a version of EPSPS that is highly tolerant to inhibition by glyphosate and therefore leads to increased tolerance to glyphosate-containing herbicides. ...
105184 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Salmonella typhimurium - SALTM
Involved in EPSP biosynthesis. The aroA gene, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase , an enzyme of the common aromatic biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan.
103857 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Leader
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
46121 7Crp gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Allergens
Cryptomeria japonica - Japanese cedar
7Crp gene derived from cedar pollen Cryj I and Cryj II allergen protein genes. This gene encodes an artificial peptide linking seven-site sequences recognized by the human cedar allergen-specific T cells.
104598 AC1 Gene
 
Bean Golden Mosaic Virus - CGMV
AC1 encodes a complex, multifunctional protein (Rep) that acts as a rolling-circle replication initiation factor, which is the only protein strictly essential for viral genome replication in the bean yellow mosaic virus and is capable of regulating its own expression.
15177 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Chlorsulfuron, Sulfonylurea
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine.

Native ALS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However a naturally occurring mutation causes the production of an altered form of ALS (designated SuRB) that is insensitive to inhibition by sulfonylurea herbicides.
48073 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Imidazolinone, Sulfonylurea
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine.

A common mutant form of the ahas gene was isolated from a herbicide-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana which differs from the wild type gene by only a single base pair. ...
104877 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Sulfonylurea
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine.

A common mutant form of the ahas gene which differs from the wild type gene by two mutations W548L and S627I results in an enzyme that has tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides in plants. The ahas mutant isoform may, therefore, be used as a selectable marker in transgenic plants.
100268 Acetohydroxy acid Synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Sulfonylurea
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
Acetohydroxy acid Synthase (AKA acetolactate synthase) is a key enzyme that catalyses the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine ...
15164 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (Chimeric)
Resistance to herbicides - Sulfonylurea
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine.

Native ALS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However S4-HrA is a chimeric gene derived from two different tobacco ALS genes that both encoded herbicide sensitive versions of ALS.

Two resistance mutations were introduced into one of the ALS genes (Pro191Ala and Trp568Leu) via site directed mutagenesis. ...
103932 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
104672 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene promoter
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
104876 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
100390 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene terminator
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
103933 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene terminator
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
104878 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Terminator
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
103896 Acetohydroxy acid Synthase gene Terminator
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
48364 Acetohydroxyacid synthase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Sulfonylurea
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
The acetolactate synthase enzyme (ALS) plays a key role in the biochemical pathways of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. The application of ALS-inhibiting herbicides blocks this synthesis pathway. Lack of the aforementioned amino acids interferes with protein synthesis, causing the plant to die off.This gene encodes a modified acetolactate synthase, which confers tolerance to several acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides such as, for example, sulfonylurea.
103926 Acetohydroxyacid synthase gene promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
102613 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase large subunit
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
ACC catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is needed as a co-substrate in the fatty acids biosynthesis.
104517 Actin 2 Gene Promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103761 Actin 5c gene Promotor
 
Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
 
103909 Actin 8 Intron 1
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103908 Actin 8 Leader
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103907 Actin 8 Promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
101362 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase ClFatB4
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lipid and fatty acids
Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (Acyl-ACP) thioesterases (TE) hydrolyse the thioester ligation between the ACP (acyl carrier protein) and the synthesised acyl chain in fatty acid biosynthesis. Myristic and palmitic-[ACP] are substrates of the Cuphea lanceolata-derived enzyme which is encoded by the acyl-[ACP] thioesterase gene (ClFatB4). ...
103920 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase promoter
 
Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
 
103921 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase Terminator
 
Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
 
104660 AHAS Chloroplast Transit Peptide
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104337 Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1, intron 1
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
103867 Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1, intron 2
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
103625 Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1, intron 6
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104870 Alcohol dehydrogenase gene 5'UTR
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
45795 Alpha S1 Caesin gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Bos taurus - Cattle
The caseins are the major milk proteins of mammals. Their dual function for the suckling infant is to serve as a major source of amino acids, as well as to transport phosphate and calcium in sufficient amounts to support growth of bones.

Alpha S1 caesin aids in the export of the caseins out of the endoplasmic reticulum.
104334 Alpha-amylase gene promoter
 
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
 
46091 Alpha-hordothionine gene
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
Thionins are a class of small(45– 47 amino acids), anti fungal, highly basic, cysteine-rich proteins. An in vitro type-1 α-HTH treatment of Neurospora crassa hyphae resulted in increased calcium ion uptake and permeabilization of the fungal membrane, leading to rupture.
101414 alpha-S1 casein promoter
 
Bos taurus - Cattle
 
48368 Amino acid permease 1 gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
The Vfaap1 gene from Vicia faba encodes an amino acid permease. Amino acid permeases transport amino acids from the plant vascular tissue into the symplasts of plant cells. They are differentially expressed according to plant development and tissue, and exhibit a range of specificity patterns for amino acids. ...
103860 Amino acid permease 1 Terminator
 
Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
 
104887 Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Carica papaya - Papaya, Pawpaw, Papaw, CARPA
ACO2, encoding for the ACC oxidase enzyme, plays an important role in ethylene biosynthesis pathway. It oxidises 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate in the presence of ascorbate and oxygen to produce ethylene gas which has a role in the fruit ripening process.
14967 Aminoglycoside 3 phosphotransferase II
Resistance to antibiotics - Kanamycin
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The aphII gene confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. Typically used as a marker gene.
14966 amy797E alpha amylase
Thermostable alpha-amylase
Use in industrial applications - Biofuel production
Thermococcales spp. - Thermococcus
The amy797E gene encodes a thermostable alpha-amylase. Alpha-amylases catalyse the hydrolysis of starch by cleaving the internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of starch into dextrins, maltose and glucose (saccharification). Splitting starch into sugar is the first step in producing bioethanol from plants. Plants like maize naturally contain their own amylases. They get destroyed, however, when maize is subjected to high temperatures for ethanol production. ...
105427 Anthocyanidin synthase gene promoter
 
Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
 
105424 Anthocyanidin synthase gene terminator
 
Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
 
43794 Anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Torenia sp. - Torenia hybrid, Wishbone flowers, Blue Wings, TOREN
Anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase is an enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that alters the production of a type of anthocyanin called delphinidin.
105436 Anthocyanin-3',5'-methyltransferase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Torenia sp. - Torenia hybrid, Wishbone flowers, Blue Wings, TOREN
Anthocyanin-3',5'-methyltransferase (AMT) methylates delphinidin-3-glucoside to produce petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.
104722 Antifreeze Polypeptide Promoter
 
Zoarces americanus - Ocean pout, Poodler, Mother-of-eels, Muttonfish, North-Atlantic ocean pout, ZOAAM
 
104724 Antifreeze Polypeptide Terminator
 
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha - Chinook Salmon, King Salmon, ONCTS
 
48365 Apyrase-gene
Other growth, development and product quality
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
Apyrases are enzymes that transform NTP (nucleoside triphosphates) via NDP to NMP without triggering an endergonic reaction in the process. These enzymes have been identified in the tissues of animals, plants (among others in Arabidopsis thaliana, legumes and potatoes) and fungi and apparently have predominantly regulatory functions. ...
104941 ArsR binding site
 
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
 
104939 ArsR gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The gene arsR stems from the E. coli-specific plasmid R773 and encodes for a transcriptional regulator with binding sites for arsenic compounds.

It is a repressor protein that binds to its promoter in the absence of arsenic compounds therefore repressing the expression of downstream genes.

Arsenic compounds that are taken up by bacterial cells form a complex with ArsR, thereby allosterically preventing the association of ArsR with the promoter. ...
104940 ArsR Promoter
 
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
 
104805 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase gene
Resistance to herbicides
Delftia acidovorans - DELAC
The AAD-12 protein is an enzyme with an alpha ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity which results in metabolic inactivation of the herbicides of the aryloxyalkanoate family.
104812 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase gene
Resistance to herbicides
Tolerance to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Tolerance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate
Sphingobium herbicidovorans - SPHHE
The aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD-1) enzyme is able to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionates (AOPP) herbicides, in an alpha.-ketoglutarate-dependent, enantiospecific manner.
103358 AttB λ attachment site
 
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
 
105608 avhppd-03 gene
Resistance to herbicides
Avena sativa - Oat, AVESA
The gene avhppd-03 decodes the enzyme AvHPPD-03 which catalyses the formation of homogentisic acid, the aromatic precursor of plastoquinone and vitamin E biosynthesis . It has a low binding afinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits HHPD. Expression of AvHPPD-03 in plant cells confers tolerance to HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione.
100273 B33 gene promotor
 
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
 
14973 Barnase
Changes in physiology and/or production - Reproduction - Male sterility
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAS
Barnase is a bacterial protein that has ribonuclease activity. It is lethal to the cell when expressed without its inhibitor barstar. The inhibitor binds to and occludes the ribonuclease active site, preventing barnase from damaging the cell's RNA after it has been synthesized but before it has been secreted. ...
104825 Barnase 3' Untranslated region
 
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAS
 
14974 Barstar
Changes in physiology and/or production - Fertility restoration
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAS
The barstar gene from [i]Bacillus amyloliquefaciens[/i] encodes a specific ribonuclease inhibitor (barstar enzyme) expressed only in the tapetum cells of the pollen sac during anther development. ...
101409 Barstar gene terminator
 
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAS
 
105599 B-BOX32 gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Photoperiod response
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
BBX32 functions downstream of multiple photoreceptors as a modulator of light responses and functions in light sensitive hypocotyl growth.
105217 Beta-actin gene promoter
 
Gallus gallus - Chicken, CHICK
 
45875 Beta-galactosidase gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
β-galactosidase is a hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides. Substrates of different β-galactosidases include ganglioside GM1, lactosylceramides, lactose, and various glycoproteins. ...
46004 Beta-Glucuronidase
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The uidA gene expresses beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Expression of this enzyme allows detection in the laboratory of transformed cells by using a simple colour change assay. Typically used as a reporter gene or visual marker gene.
103614 Beta-kafirin promoter
 
Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
 
103615 Beta-kafirin Terminator
 
Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
 
14975 Beta-lactamase gene
Resistance to antibiotics - Ampicillin
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by some bacteria and are responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem) (Cephalosporins are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase).

These antibiotics have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam. The lactamase enzyme breaks that ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties
14972 Bialaphos resistance gene
Resistance to herbicides - Glufosinate
Streptomyces hygroscopicus - STRHY
The glufosinate ammonium tolerance gene ([i]bar[/i] gene), derived from the common soil bacterium [i]Streptomyces hygroscopicus[/i], codes for phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and leads to increased tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, such as Basta®, Rely®, Finale®, and Liberty®. ...
48366 Branching Enzyme 1
altered carbohydrate composition: increased amylopectin content
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
The be1 and be2 genes code for starch branching enzymes which catalyse the splitting of alpha-1,4-glucans and the subsequent formation of alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds between glucan chains during amylopectin synthesis.
The isozymes BE1 and BE2 differ with regard to their amino acid sequences, their expression patter (BE1 is expressed mainly in potato tubers, BE2 mainly in leaves) and their specificity (e.g. size of the transferred carbohydrate chains).
48453 Branching Enzyme 2
altered carbohydrate composition: increased amylopectin content
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
The be1 and be2 genes code for starch branching enzymes which catalyse the splitting of alpha-1,4-glucans and the subsequent formation of alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds between glucan chains during amylopectin synthesis.
The isozymes BE1 and BE2 differ with regard to their amino acid sequences, their expression patter (BE1 is expressed mainly in potato tubers, BE2 mainly in leaves) and their specificity (e.g. size of the transferred carbohydrate chains).
105056 Brittle-1 gene Transit Peptide
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
14976 Bromoxynil-specific nitrilase
Resistance to herbicides - Bromoxynil
Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae - Klebsiella, KLEPO
A Klebsiella ozaenae nitrilase converts the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4 hydroxybenzo-nitrile) to 3,6-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid to adegraded non-herbicidal product.
103892 C5 left flanking arm
 
Canarypox virus - CNPV
 
103891 C5 right flanking arm
 
Canarypox virus - CNPV
 
101413 CA55 gene promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
105596 Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lignin
Medicago sativa - Alfalfa, Lucerne, MEDSV
Alfalfa CCOMT catalyzes O-methylation of caffeoyl and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA, with preference for caffeoyl CoA.
102123 Caffeoyl coenzymeA O-methyl transferase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lignin
Populus tremula x Populus alba - Gray Poplar
CCoAOMT is essential in lignin biosynthesis in woody poplar (Populus alba x Populus tremula) plants.

CCoAOMT plays a dominant role in the methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl CoA, and the CCoAOMT-mediated methylation reaction is essential to channel substrates for 5-methoxylation of hydroxycinnamates. Antisense repression of CCoAOMT is an efficient means for genetic engineering of trees with low lignin content.
101405 Calcium-dependent protein kinase promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
105197 CaMV 35S Enhancer
 
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
 
100287 CaMV 35S promoter
 
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
 
101504 CaMV 35S promoter plus four repeats of activating sequence
 
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
 
100290 CaMV 35S terminator
 
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
 
100366 CaMV Enhanced 35S promoter
 
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
 
45877 Catechol dioxygenase
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Pseudomonas chlororaphis - PSECL
Catechol dioxygenase converts the colorless substrate catechol to an intensely yellow hydroxymuconic semialdehyde.
105019 cctra intron
 
Ceratitis capitata - Mediterranean fruit fly , CERCA
 
102013 Cdc25 gene
Changes in physiology and/or production
Schizosaccharomyces pombe - Fission yeast
Cdc25 proteins control entry into and progression through various phases of the cell cycle, including mitosis and S ("Synthesis") phase. They act through dephosphorylation of CDK/cyclin complex.
45854 cDNA encoding ADP-dependent glucokinase
 
Homo sapiens - Human
ADP-GK catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate using ADP as the phosphate donor. GDP and CDP can replace ADP, but with reduced efficiency.
104788 Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus promoter
 
Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus - CYLCV
 
103771 Chalcone synthase gene promoter
 
Antirrhinum majus - Common Snapdragon, Snapdragon
 
105669 Chalcone synthase gene promoter
 
Rosa hybrida - Rose, ROSHC
 
105670 Chalcone synthase gene promoter
 
Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
 
45914 Chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1
 
Carassius auratus - Goldfish
CCT may be involved in the folding and assembly of a wide range of cytosolic proteins, including actin and tubulin.
45840 Chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1
 
Oncorhynchus mykiss - Rainbow trout
This chaperonin is essential for the productive folding of actins and tubulins. There is also evidence that CCT participates in the folding of Gα transducin, cyclin E, and the Hippel–Landau tumor suppressor protein VHL.
45915 Chaperonin containing t-complex polypeptide 1
 
Danio rerio - Zebra fish, leopard danio, zebra danio
This chaperonin is essential for the productive folding of actins and tubulins. There is also evidence that CCT participates in the folding of Gα transducin, cyclin E, and the Hippel–Landau tumor suppressor protein VHL.
100382 Chloramphenicol-acetyl-transferase
Resistance to antibiotics - Chloramphenicol
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) is a bacterial enzyme that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria.
100365 Chloroplast transit peptide 2
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103899 Chloroplast Transit Peptide 4
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
102896 Cholera Toxin
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Vibrio cholerae
An exotoxin, produced by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio eltor, thats leeds to the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection.

The cholera toxin is a member of the AB family of toxins. The function of the non-toxic B subunit is to assemble into a ring-shaped, homologous pentamer and to adhere to mem-brane receptors on the intestinal epithelial cell surface (GM1 gangliosides). The pathogenic effect stems from the A subunit. ...
102122 Cinnamoyl coenzymeA reductase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lignin
Populus tremula x Populus alba - Gray Poplar
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyzes the penultimate step in monolignol biosynthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of feruloyl-CoA to coniferaldehyde and is considered the first enzyme in the monolignol-specific branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Because downregulation of the CCR gene in annual model plants significantly reduced lignin content, downregulating CCR in a woody perennial was an interesting potential avenue to improve wood quality for pulping.
15027 CMV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Mosaic virus - Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)
Cucumber mosaic virus - CMV
The cp gene from CMV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by CMV.
103554 c-myc-tag
 
Homo sapiens - Human
 
103065 Cold shock protein gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress - Cold / Heat, Drought
Bacillus subtilis - Bacillus
CspB is a type of stress-inducible protein that might be able to protect B. subtilis cells from damage caused by ice crystal formation during freezing.
104319 CP Peptide
Use in industrial applications - Bioremediation
 
A syntetic metallothionenine that binds heavy metals when expressed in plant tissues.
103918 Cruciferin A gene promoter
 
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
 
103919 Cruciferin A gene terminator
 
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
 
43771 Cry1A.105
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Cry1A.105 is a full-length, insecticidal protein consisting of 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight (MW) of 133 kDa. It is a chimeric protein that consists of domains I and II from Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac1, domain III from Cry1F, and the C-terminal domain ...
14985 Cry1Ab
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The [i]cry1Ab[/i] gene codes for a delta-endotoxin, commonly known as "Bt-toxin", which confers resistance to the plant to lepidoptera larvae such as the European corn borer ([i]Ostrinia nubilalis[/i]), the southwestern corn borer ([i]Diatraea grandiosella[/i]), pink borer ([i]Sesamia cretica[/i]), Spruce Budworm, Tent caterpillar, Gypsy moth, Diamondback moth, Cabbage looper, Tobacco budworm, and Cabbage worm.
103109 Cry1Ab/Ac
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) - Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry1Ab-Ac gene was constructed by combining 1 – 286 amino acid residues of Domain-I, 287 – 459 are of Domain-II, conforming to Cry1Ab of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD1. Sequence 460-608 amino acid residues are of Domain III, conforming to Cry1Ac of B. thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD73. ...
14986 Cry1Ac
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry1Ac gene codes for a Bt-toxin, which confers resistance to lepidopteran pests of cotton, such as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens).
14987 Cry1F
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry1F gene codes for codes for a Bt-toxin, which protects the plant against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and other lepidopterans such as the pink borer (Sesamia spp.), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella).
14988 Cry2Ab2
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry2A(b) gene encodes codes for a Bt-toxin, which confers resistance to lepidopteran pests of cotton, such as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens).
101895 Cry2Ae
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) - Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.), armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Cry2Ae protein as expressed in cotton has 631 amino acids. The deduced molecular weight is
71 kDa. The Cry2Ae protein is effective in controlling lepidopteran plant feeding larvae such as cotton bollworm larvae, tobacco budworm larvae and fall armyworm larvae which are common pests of cotton.
14994 Cry34Ab1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry34Ab1 gene codes for a 14kDa Bt-toxin Cry34Ab1. When expressed with Cry35Ab1 it results in the mortality of Coleopteran insects, such as western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi), and mexican corn rootworm (D. virgifera zeae) upon oral ingestion.
14995 Cry35Ab1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry35Ab1 gene codes for a 44kDa Bt-toxin Cry35Ab1. When expressed with Cry34Ab1 it results in the mortality of Coleopteran insects, such as western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi), and mexican corn rootworm (D. virgifera zeae) upon oral ingestion.
14989 Cry3A
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry3A gene codes for a Bt-Toxin, which confers resistance to western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica longicornis barberi) and other related coleopteran species.
14993 Cry3Bb1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The cry3Bb1 gene, isolated from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subspecies kumamotoensis, produces the insect control protein Cry3Bb1, a delta-endotoxin. The Cry3Bb1 protein provides protection against the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica vigifera) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi).
14996 Cry9C
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) - European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The Cry9C protein, when expressed, protects the plants against feeding damage of larvae of the lepidopteran insect European corn borer by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the brush border midgut epithelium of susceptible insect species.
102150 Cryj gene
Vaccine against pollen allergies
Cryptomeria japonica - Japanese cedar
Cryj is a major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen. Cryj genes are being used to develop vaccines for treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis/ allergies.
100280 cThEn42(GC); Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
 
The encoded enzyme is an endochitinase which has the ability to randomly break down chitin (poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), the essential scaffold-forming component of the fungal cell wall, within the polymer.
103096 Cyanophycin synthetase
Use in industrial applications
Thermosynechococcus elongatus - Cyanobacteria
Cyanophycin synthetase catalyzes the polymerisation of aspartate monomers to a polyaspartate-chain. The aspartate monomers are covalently linked by their beta-carboxy- and alpha-amino groups. Additional arginine side chains are observed. This biopolymer is produced by a variety of cyaonobacteria such as Thermosynecchococcus elongates as a storage molecule for nitrogen.
104770 Cyclobutylpyrimidine dimer photolyase Gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
Involved in repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Catalyzes the light-dependent monomerization (300-600 nm) of cyclobutylpyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which are formed between adjacent bases on the same DNA strand upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Required for plant survival in the presence of UV-B light. ...
45832 cyt-b gene
 
 
Cytochrome b is one of the cytochromes involved in the electron transport in the respiratory chain of mitochondria.

The cytochrome b gene is the most widely used gene for phylogenetic work for several reasons. Although it evolves slowly in terms of non-synonymous substitutions, the rate of evolution in silent positions is relatively fast. The wide use of cytochrome b has created a status as a universal metric, in the sense that studies can be easily compared. ...
104593 Cytochrome b5
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Antioxidants, Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
Cyt b5 protein acts as an electron donor to the Cyt P450 enzyme and is required for full activity of the Cyt P450 enzyme Flavinoid 3' 5' hydroxylase [i]in vivo[/i] and the generation of purple/ blue flower colours.
102614 D1 thylakoid membrane protein (psbA) gene terminator
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
103772 D8 gene terminator
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
100267 delta(12)-fatty acid dehydrogenase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lipid and fatty acids
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
The gm-fad2-1 is a fragment of the omega-6 desaturase gene 1 (FAD2-1) from Glycine max (soybean) that corresponds to approximately 40% of the middle portion of the coding region of FAD2-1 (597 bp).

gm-fad2-1 itself does not code for a functional protein, but transcription of this gene fragment transgenic soybean seeds acts to suppress transcription of endogenous omega-6 desaturase, resulting in the high oleic phenotype.
104625 delta-15 desaturase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lipid and fatty acids
Neurospora crassa
Catalyses the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to stearidonic acid
104623 Delta-6-desaturase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lipid and fatty acids
Primula juliae - Juliae primrose, PRIJU
Catalyses the synthesis of stearidonic acid from α-linoleic acid
102160 delta-9 Acyl-lipid desaturase
Tolerance to abiotic stress - Cold / Heat
Synechocystis sp. - Cyanobacteria
The desC (a.k.a. des9) is involved in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (lipid metabolism). Fatty acid unsaturation was found to be essential for tolerance to low temperatures by cyanobacteria. Similar proteins exist in higher plants.
100728 Dicamba monooxygenase gene
Resistance to herbicides
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia - S. maltophilia, Stenotrophomonas
DMO (dicamba monooxygenase) catalyzes the degradation of the herbicide dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid) to non-toxic 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (3,6- DCSA) in plants, thus conferring herbicide tolerance.
14978 Dihydrodipicolinate synthase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Corynebacterium glutamicum - CORGT
Dihydropicolinate synthase is the key enzyme in lysine biosynthesis via the diaminopimelate pathway of prokaryotes, some phycomycetes and higher plants. The enzyme catalyses the condensation of L-aspartate-beta- semialdehyde and pyruvate to dihydropicolinic acid via a ping-pong mechanism in which pyruvate binds to the enzyme by forming a Schiff base with a lysine residue.
104383 Dihydrodipicolinate synthase chloroplast targeting sequence
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
15009 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
The gene encodes dihydroflavonol reductase functions in the biosynthesis of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin.
104594 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
The gene encodes dihydroflavonol reductase which functions in the biosynthesis pathway of the pink/ red-coloured anthocyandin 3-O-(6-O-malylglucoside) pigment in carnations.
105819 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase intron
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
105798 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase promoter
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
105799 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase terminator
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
15008 DNA Adenine Methylase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Reproduction - Male sterility
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
DAM ,when under the control of an anther specific promoter, results in male sterility by preventing transformed plants from producing anthers or pollen via its affects on methylation patters of genes involved in pollen production.
46098 DNA encoding Initiation Factor 4A (eIF4AI)
 
Mus musculus - Mouse, House mouse
Essential function in translation

Member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding.
45797 DNA encoding Initiation Factor 4A (eIF4AII)
 
Mus musculus - Mouse, House mouse
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is an RNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is thought to melt the 5' proximal secondary structure of eukaryotic mRNAs to facilitate attachment of the 40S ribosomal subunit. eIF4A functions in a complex termed eIF4F with two other initiation factors (eIF4E and eIF4G).

May be an intermediary in neural induction.

Facilitates translation of certain mRNAs; DEAD-box RNA helicase
45798 DNA sequences encoding the eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4A (eIF4AIII)
 
Mus musculus - Mouse, House mouse
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is an RNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is thought to melt the 5' proximal secondary structure of eukaryotic mRNAs to facilitate attachment of the 40S ribosomal subunit. eIF4A functions in a complex termed eIF4F with two other initiation factors (eIF4E and eIF4G). ...
45817 DOC1
 
 
Doc1 (downregulated in ovarian cancer 1)/Apc10 has a role in APC-dependent ubiquitination reactions.
103764 Dorsomycin gene 3'UTR
 
Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
 
46333 Double Mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide’s ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. ...
101476 DsRed2 Fluorescent Protein
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
 
DsRed2 is a highly engineered monomeric form of the normally tetrameric red fluorescent protein variant of Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (drFP583; 1) with faster maturation and lower non-specific aggregation. The DsRed2 sequence contains a series of silent base-pair changes corresponding to human codon-usage preferences for high expression in mammalian cells
45811 E1 of Adenovirus
 
Human adenovirus E - Human adenovirus E
E1 and E3 genes, deleted in most adenovirus vectors, induce unscheduled DNA synthesis and inhibit apoptotic cell death.

E1 adenovirus (Ad) vector infection of human alveolar macrophages (AM) inhibits HIV-1 replication independently of any transgene.

4 early genes (E1-4) encode proteins for replication; E1 gene product trans-activates other early gene promoters
45803 E1 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
E1 and E2 genes are necessary and sufficient for episomal viral DNA replication in cultured cells and in a cell-free system.

E1 and E2 genes mediate plasmid DNA replication in cultured cells and in a cell extract.

Regulatory gene function

E1 protein is required for viral DNA replication and can bind to the origin of replication alone or in a complex with the E2 transactivator protein.
45812 E2 of Adenovirus
 
Human adenovirus E - Human adenovirus E
Encodes for viral DNA polymerase and the adenoviral singlestranded DNA-binding protein. The E2 proteins provide the machinery for viral DNA replication and transcription of late genes.
45804 E2 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
The E2 gene has been identified as the encoder of a transacting protein necessary for transactivation of the viral promoters. The domain(s) of E2 involved in protein-protein interaction might be the critical elements in transcription enhancement.
45813 E3 of Adenovirus
 
Human adenovirus E - Human adenovirus E
Adenovirus infection induces apoptosis by multiple paradigms that involve viral proteins coded by three different early gene regions, E1A, E3, and E4. These cell death programs are antagonized by a different set of viral proteins coded by early gene blocks E1B, E3, and E4. ...
45814 E4 of Adenovirus
 
Human adenovirus E - Human adenovirus E
Influences hepatotoxicity and inflammation induced by virus; Direct influence on the persistence of transgene expression; Involved in transcription.

E4 open reading frames ((i) ORF3, OKF6 and ORF7; or (ii) ORF3 and ORF4; or (iii) ORF1, ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4): pharmaceutical applications for improving the expression and/or persistence of expression of a gene of interest inserted into an expression vector.
45805 E4 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
E4 protein has been reported to have highly specific antigenicity.

Related to the productive stage of viral infection.

E4 is tightly linked to host cell differentiation; it likely plays an important role in the viral life cycle.

Association with cytokeratins and the concomitant destabilization of cytokeratin networks. ...
45806 E5 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
E5 gene can induce focus formation, stable and acute morphologic transformation, and DNA synthesis, and it activates the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) beta receptor. ...
105600 E6 gene terminator
 
Gossypium barbadense - Sea-island cotton, Egyptian cotton, GOSBA
 
104862 E8 gene promoter
 
Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC
 
104789 eCry3.1Ab
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles) - Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), Northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
An engineered Cry gene active against certain corn rootworm (Diabrotica) species . The gene ecry3.1Ab consists of a fusion between the 5′ end (Domain I, Domain II and 15 amino acids of Domain III) of a modified Cry3A gene (mcry3A) and the 3′ end (Domain III and Variable Region 6) of a synthetic Cry1Ab gene ...
103905 Elongation factor EF-1alpha Intron 1
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103904 Elongation factor EF-1alpha Leader
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103903 Elongation factor EF-1alpha promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
105732 Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Aequorea victoria - Crystal Jellyfish, Water Jellyfish, AEQVI
Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) is a genetic mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) originally derived from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Its excitation peak is 514 nm and its emission peak is 527 nm.
105735 Ethylene response factor gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Yield
Populus trichocarpa - Western balsam poplar, Black cottonwood, California poplar, POPTR
Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development.
105200 Farnesene Synthase gene
Use in industrial applications - Biofuel production
Artemisia annua - Artemisia , Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Annie, Sweet Sagewort, Annual Wormwood
Te enzyme catalyzes the production of beta-farnesene from farnesyl diphosphate.
104323 Fatty Acid Desaturase 2
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Lipid and fatty acids
Linum usitatissimum - Flax, Flax, Linseed
Catalyses the desaturation of oleic acid to linoleic acid.
45046 Feline leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Feline leukemia virus - Feline leukemia virus
The feline Leukemia virus env gene (FeLV-env) encodes a glycoprotein. The FeLV-env is used together with the nucleoprotein (FeLV-gag) and reverse transcriptase (FeLV-pol) genes of the feline leukemia virus in a vaccine. The FeLV-env gene induces the production of anti-viral antibodies helping to prevent the disease in cats.
45047 Feline leukemia virus gag gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Feline leukemia virus - Feline leukemia virus
The feline leukemia virus gag gene (FeLV-gag) encodes the structural proteins of the virion core. The complete FeLV-gag gene is used together with the glycoprotein (FeLV-env) and reverse transcriptase (FeLV-pol) genes of the feline leukemia virus in vaccines to help preventing the disease in cats.
45048 Feline Leukemia Virus pol gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Feline leukemia virus - Feline leukemia virus
The feline leukemia virus pol gene (FeLV-pol) encodes a reverse transcriptase (enzyme that "converts", i.e., reverse transcribes, RNA into DNA). A portion of the FeLV-pol gene that is not expressed is used together with the glycoprotein (FeLV-env) and the complete nucleoprotein (FeLV-gag) genes of the feline leukemia virus in vaccines to help preventing the disease in cats.
104332 Firefly Luciferase
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Photinus pyralis - North American firefly, Common Eastern firefly, Big Dipper firefly
Firefly luciferase from Photinus pyralis (FLuc) is an ATP-dependent luciferase widely used as a reporter enzyme for cell-based gene expression assays, principally due to the high sensitivity and large dynamic range bioluminescence affords.
105446 Flavone synthase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Torenia sp. - Torenia hybrid, Wishbone flowers, Blue Wings, TOREN
Flavone synthase acts on the flavanones (naringenin, eriodictyol and pentahydroxyflavanone) to produce flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricetin, respectively).

A major use of flavones in biotechnology is for them to act as co-pigments to enhance the bluing of the anthocyanins.
15010 Flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
Flavonoid-3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of 3', 5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins, which are generally required for the expression of blue or purple flower color.
104606 Flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Salvia splendens - Salvia, Ornamental Sage, Scarlet Sage, Tropical Sage, SALSN
Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase is an enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that is involved in the biosynthesis of the anthocyanidin delphinidin. Delphinidin-related anthocyanins typically have a blue coloured hue.
43793 Flavonoid 3’, 5’-hydroxylase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Viola sp. - Pansy, VIOLA
Flavonoid 3’,5’-hydroxylase is an enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that is involved in the biosynthesis of a group of blue coloured anthocyanins called delphinidins.
105671 Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Chrysanthemum morifolium - Florists chrysanthemum, Mum, Florist's daisy, Hardy garden mum, CHRMO
Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H)is a key protein in the anthocyanidin 3-glucosides biosynthesis pathway. Expression of F3'H leads to the of biosynthesis of cyanidin-related anthocyanins. Suppression of its activity results in the accumulation of pelargonidin and/or delphinidin related anthocyanins.
105672 Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Rosa hybrida - Rose, ROSHC
Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) is a key protein in the anthocyanidin 3-glucosides biosynthesis pathway. Expression of F3'H leads to the of biosynthesis of cyanidin-related anthocyanins. Suppression of its activity results in the accumulation of pelargonidin and/or delphinidin related anthocyanins.
105196 FMV 35S Enhancer
 
Figwort mosaic virus - Figwort mottle virus., FMV, CMoVb
 
101507 FMV 35S promoter
 
Figwort mosaic virus - Figwort mottle virus., FMV, CMoVb
 
103763 fs(1)K10 3' UTR
 
Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
 
105090 Fusion protein gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Newcastle disease virus - Newcastle disease virus, NDV
The fusion (F) glycoprotein is one of the proteins that forms the viral envelope of NDV. Its function is to fuse with, and penetrate through the host cell membrane during infection.
45796 Galectin-1 cDNA
 
Homo sapiens - Human
Plays a role in both cell–matrix interactions and the inhibition cell proliferation. Could be associated with apoptosis (kills thymocytes, peripheral T cells, and T cell lines) and nerve regeneration. ...
101271 Gamma-glutamylcysteine Synthetase I gene
Use in industrial applications - Bioremediation
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase plays an important role in the synthesis of glutathione (glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) insofar as it specifically catalyses the ligation of glutamic acid and cysteine to form glutamylcysteine under energy consumption. Other gamma-ECS substrates are not known. Glutathione is formed in a second step, in which glycine is bound to the dipeptide by glutathione synthetase. ...
45836 GapDH gene
 
Oncorhynchus mykiss - Rainbow trout
When accumulated in mitochondria, induces the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, a decisive event of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
45838 GapDH gene
 
Danio rerio - Zebra fish, leopard danio, zebra danio
When accumulated in mitochondria, induces the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, a decisive event of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
45837 GAPDH gene
 
Carassius auratus - Goldfish
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of ~37kDa that catalyzes the sixth step of glycolysis and thus serves to break down glucose for energy and carbon molecules. In addition to this long established metabolic function, GAPDH has recently been implicated in several non-metabolic processes, including transcription activation, initiation of apoptosis, and ER to Golgi vesicle shuttling.
104314 Gene 4 transcription terminator
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
45879 gene encoding NCED
Tolerance to abiotic stress - Drought
Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC
9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), converting carotenoid to xanthophylls in plastids (in conjunction with zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP)). Carotenoid cleavage reaction is thought to be the primary regulated (and rate-limiting) step in the pathway controlling ABA synthesis. ...
103649 gI Glycoprotein
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Suid herpesvirus 1 - SHV-1
GI is belived to contribute to the viruses virulence by facilitating the spread of the virus through the central nervous system.
103517 Gibberellin 20 Oxidase-1 gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Growth rate
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
GA 20-oxidase 1 is a key enzyme involved in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis.

GAs consist of a large family of tetracyclic diterpenoids and are associated with a number of plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination, stem elongation, flowering and fruit development.

Inactivation of gibberellin 20-oxidase decreases active gibberellin levels and creates the so-called semi-dwarf phenotype. Over-expression of the gene results in significantly longer plants.
45816 GIGANTEA gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
Involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time; Potential role in phyB signaling.
103623 Globulin 1 Promotor
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
103624 Globulin 1 Terminator
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104869 Glutathione S-transferase gene promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
103765 Glutelin gene promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
103766 Glutelin signal peptide
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
103767 Glutelin terminator
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
105174 Glycoprotein B gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Gallid herpesvirus 1 - ILTV
Glycoprotein B is an envelope glycoprotein that forms spikes at the surface of the virion envelope. It is essential for the fusion of viral and cellular membranes leading to virus entry into the host cell. Membrane fusion is mediated by the fusion machinery composed at least of gB and the heterodimer gH/gL
103640 Glycoprotein B promoter
 
Gallid herpesvirus 2
 
14998 Glyphosate oxidoreductase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Ochrobactrum anthropi - OCHAN
The gox gene produces glyphosate oxidase (GOX) – an enzyme that accelerates the normal breakdown of the herbicide glyphosate into two non-toxic compounds, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate.
48363 Glyphosate-N-Acteyltransferase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Glyphosate
Bacillus licheniformis
Glyphosate-N-acetyltransferase expression in genetically modified plants may lead to detoxification of the glyphosate agent. This is brought about by the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to the secondary amine group of glyphosate.

The resulting N-acetylglyphosate does not have the ability to inhibit the activity of the EPSPS enzyme, and the genetically modified plants are able to grow despite glyphosate treatment.
45851 gp (LCMV)
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus - LCM
Cellular antigen; The glycoprotein (GP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) serves as virus attachment protein to its receptor on host cells and is a key determinant for cell tropism, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of the virus.
14997 Granule bound starch synthase gene promoter
 
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
 
48072 Granule-bound starch synthase gene
altered carbohydrate composition: increased amylopectin content
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
The granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of amylose in the amyloplasts of potato tubers. Inhibition of GBSS leads to the accumulation of amylopectin in the starch fraction.
45846 Green Fluorescent Protein gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Aequorea victoria - Crystal Jellyfish, Water Jellyfish, AEQVI
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range
104723 Growth Hormone gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Growth rate
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha - Chinook Salmon, King Salmon, ONCTS
The expression of growth hormone alters aggregate metabolic activity in several ways: lipid breakdown and mobilization are increased, and energy is deployed more readily for maintenance or growth; protein synthesis is increased, providing the raw material for additional body mass; mineral uptake is increased, promoting skeletal development and a longer, leaner morphology; and, feeding efficiency (i.e., feed conversion ratio) is improved.
104689 H6 gene 3'UTR
 
Gossypium barbadense - Sea-island cotton, Egyptian cotton, GOSBA
 
103890 H6 Gene Promoter
 
Vaccinia virus - Poxvirus, Smallpox vaccine, VACV, VV, Vaccinia
 
101614 haemagglutinin (HA) gene
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses
Equine Influenza Virus
The HA protein is part of the viral envelope and thought to be involved in receptor-binding between the virus and the host cells.
101873 Heatshock protein 80 gene promoter
 
Brassica oleracea - Crucifers
 
45883 Hemagglutinin gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Influenza virus - Influenza
Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), a homotrimer of subunits with two polypeptide chains, HA, and HA2, mediates binding of the virus to sialic acid-containing cell-surface receptors, initiating endocytosis, and the subsequent fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes by an acid-induced conformational change. A domain formed by the HA, chain contains the receptor-binding site and a significant proportion of the antigenic epitopes. ...
103022 Hexa Histidine Anchor sequence
immunodetection and purification
 
Hexa histidine tags are used for immunodetection and purification of fusion proteins by affinity chromatography.
102884 High molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 gene promoter
 
Triticum aestivum - Wheat
 
46077 hisG
 
Salmonella typhimurium - SALTM
HisG codes for the first of 10 enzymes involved in histidine biosynthesis. The enzyme phosphoribosyl-ATP pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the condensation of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and adenosine triphosphate to form pyrophosphate and N-I-(5’-phosphoribosyl)-ATP.
104648 Histone H3 Gene II intron 1
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
104646 Histone H4 gene 3' UTR
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
104647 Histone H4 gene Promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103738 Homologues of Cladosporium fulvum Resistance genes of the Vf region
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Malus domestica - Apple
The genes encode for resistance against Venturia inaequalis (apple scab). The gene product consists an extracellular receptor protein of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class with a transmembrane (TM) region acting as a membrane anchor.

The role of the predicted protein has yet to be demonstrated however by analogy to the tomato Cf gene it is likely that the HcrVf2 in an extracellular receptor involved in pathogen recognition.
101595 Hordein B1 promoter
 
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
 
101596 Hordein B1 terminator
 
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
 
101594 Hordeum vulgare sucrose transporter
Changes in physiology and/or production - Yield
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Carbohydrates
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
The HvSUT1 gene encodes a membrane transport protein which mediates the energy-dependent transport of saccharose (sucrose) across cell membranes against a concentration gradient. Sucrose transporters are thought to be among the basic components of all higher plants, since saccharose is the universal transport form of all photoassimilates. ...
102882 Hordeum vulgare sucrose transporter promoter
 
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
 
105017 hr5 Transcriptional Enhancer
 
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus - AcMNPV
 
103901 HSP 70 5' untranslated leader sequence
 
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
 
103922 HSP17.9 Leader Sequence
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
45839 HSP70
 
Oncorhynchus mykiss - Rainbow trout
The HSP70 multigene family is composed of genes related to the major heat shock protein of 70,000 daltons. The proteins encoded by these genes are usually abundant chaperones that are required for the proper folding and/or transport of proteins. They are present in all cells with the exception of a few species of archaebacteria.
45916 HSP70
 
Carassius auratus - Goldfish
The HSP70 multigene family is composed of genes related to the major heat shock protein of 70,000 daltons. The proteins encoded by these genes are usually abundant chaperones that are required for the proper folding and/or transport of proteins. They are present in all cells with the exception of a few species of archaebacteria.
45917 HSP70
 
Danio rerio - Zebra fish, leopard danio, zebra danio
The HSP70 multigene family is composed of genes related to the major heat shock protein of 70,000 daltons. The proteins encoded by these genes are usually abundant chaperones that are required for the proper folding and/or transport of proteins. They are present in all cells with the exception of a few species of archaebacteria.
100359 Hsp70 intron
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
103762 HSP70 minimal promoter
 
Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
 
103749 Human Cytomegalovirus promoter
 
Human cytomegalovirus - HCMV, HHV-5
 
104312 Human Metallothionenine 1A
Use in industrial applications - Bioremediation
Homo sapiens - Human
Metallothionein has been implicated in a number of functions, including toxic metal detoxification, as a metal chaperone and in metal ion homeostasis.
100292 Hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene
Resistance to antibiotics - Hygromycin
Streptomyces hygroscopicus - STRHY
The hygromycin B phosphotransferase encoded by the hph gene specifically inactivates the antibiotic hygromycin by phosphorylation.
14991 Hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene
Resistance to antibiotics - Hygromycin
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The hygromycin B phosphotransferase encoded by the hpt gene specifically inactivates the antibiotic hygromycin by phosphorylation.
105018 Immediate-early-1 gene promoter
 
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus - AcMNPV
 
105058 In2-1 Terminator
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
103023 KDEL ER retention signal
 
 
 
103757 kilA gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Enterobacter aerogenes - Enterobacter
This gene, along with telAB, confers resistance to the chemical compound potassium tellurite (K2TeO3). The use of this gene as marker was developed to suit strains that were aimed to be released in field trials, where it is not desirable to use antibiotic resistance genes as marker tools for tracking the bacteria. Makes selective plating on potassium tellurite possible.
47790 Killer Protein 4
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Ustilago maydis Virus 4 (UmV4)
KP4 specifically inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels inhibiting cell growth and division by blocking calcium import.

The KP4 gene is derived from the genome of a double-stranded RNA virus (Ustilago Maydis Virus 4, UmV4, Totiviridae, Totivirus, 00.075.0.01), which is present in the tissue of certain fungal strains of corn smut (Ustilago maydis). Expression of the KP4 gene leads to the production of the KP4 (killer protein 4). ...
103893 Kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene promoter
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
103894 Kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene terminator
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
45809 L1 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
L1 protein of the human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV 11) is the major capsid polypeptide that has been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vivo and in vitro. L1 is essential for viral infection.

Encode virus structural polypeptides.

There is no evidence that specific viral HPV L1 variants are associated with specific pathology.
45810 L2 of Papillomavirus
 
Human papillomavirus - HPV
L2 is the minor capsid protein. L2 protein requires L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation.

Enhances DNA encapsidation. L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10.
45794 Lactoferrin
 
Homo sapiens - Human
Lactoferrin (LF) is an 80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein of the transferrin family that is expressed in most biological fluids and is a major component of the mammalian innate immune system. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. ...
103025 LeB4 Signal peptide
 
Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
 
48030 Lipoxygenase 3
Resistance to chewing insects
Solanum nigrum - Black nightshade
The native S. nigrum gene LOX3 (S. nigrum lipoxygenase 3) codes for a jasmonic acid biosynthesis enzyme.

Jasmonates are known plant signalling substances. They play an important role in development processes (maturation of pollen, fruit and seed) and also in plant reactions to biotic and abiotic stress factors, including the production of antibodies for the direct and indirect defence of plants against chewing insects. ...
103619 Low Phytic Acid 1
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content
Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
Gene LPA1 reduces the synthesis of phytic acid which results in increased zinc and iron bio-availability.
103069 loxP recombination site
 
Bacteriophage P1 - Phage P1
 
105059 Ltp2 Promoter
 
Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
 
103755 Luciferase alpha and beta subunit fusion gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Vibrio harveyi - Vibrio, V. harveyi
The luxA and luxB genes encoding the luciferase from Vibrio harveyi were fused by site-directed mutagenesis so that one polypeptide was encoded by the fused gene. The protein encodes a luciferase enzyme. This gene/protein is commonly used in biotechnology as reporters of gene expression.
100377 Luciferase alpha subunit
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Xenorhabdus luminescens - P. luminescens
LuxA encodes a thermostable luciferase. This gene/protein is commonly used in biotechnology as reporters of gene expression.
100378 Luciferase beta subunit
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Xenorhabdus luminescens - P. luminescens
LuxB encodes a thermostable luciferase. This gene/protein is commonly used in biotechnology as reporters of gene expression.
45874 luxCDABE genes
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Photorhabdus luminescens - Bacteria
The luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium [i]Photorhabdus luminescens[/i] is commonly used as a transcriptional reporter to facilitate the quantification of gene expression. ...
105063 Lycopene beta cyclase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Vitamins
Narcissus pseudonarcissus - Wild daffodil, Lent lily, Daffodil, NARPS
Catalyses the cyclisation of the lycopene carotenoid psi-end group into a carotenoid beta-end group in the final step of the synthesis of beta carotene
103773 mac-1 Promoter
 
 
 
105057 Maize α-Amylase Gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Reproduction - Male sterility
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
Alpha-amylases belong to a family of glycosyl-hydrolases catalyzing hydrolysis of (1-4)-α-Dglucosidic linkages in polysaccharide molecules, such as starch.
48455 Major Spidroin I protein coding sequence
Use in industrial applications
Nephila clavipes - Golden silk orbweaver spider
The MaSpI gene encodes for one of two spider silk proteins in the dragline core fibre of the golden silk orbweaver spider Nephila clavipes.
48456 Major Spidroin II protein coding sequence
Use in industrial applications
Nephila clavipes - Golden silk orbweaver spider
The MaSpII gene encodes for one of two spider silk proteins in the dragline core fibre of the golden silk orbweaver spider Nephila clavipes.
101417 Mannopine Synthase Gene Promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
101418 Mannopine synthase gene terminator
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103774 Mannopine synthase gene terminator
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
43634 mCry3A
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Coleoptera (beetles) - Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
mCry3A delta-endotoxin is a synthetic, maize optimized, modified cry3A (mcry3A) gene whose expression produces a mCry3A insect control protein that is a member of a class of proteins which occur naturally in the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis. ...
103881 Metallothionein-like gene promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
105411 MG 40k antigen gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Mycoplasma gallisepticum - MG, MYCGL
The polypeptide produced from this coding sequence elicits an immune response in when administered to domestic chicken thereby resulting in immunity against chronic respiratory disease due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection.
105360 mgc3 gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Mycoplasma gallisepticum - MG, MYCGL
The protein MGC3, is a 120-kDa membrane protein and a homologue of 130-kDa protein encoded by the ORF6 gene, which is a part of P1 operon of M. pneumoniae.

MGC3 protein encoded by the mgc3 gene may function as a cytoadherence-associated molecule because the M. pneumoniae 130-kDa protein has been implicated in the cellular adhesion process.
105053 Ms45 gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Reproduction - Male sterility
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
Expression of the MS45 protein encoded by the Ms45 gene in the anther tapetum is required for the production of fertile male pollen by the maize plant. The Ms45 gene includes four exons with three introns that are removed by splicing.
105054 Ms45 gene terminator
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
45945 N-acetylglucosaminidase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production
Candida albicans - Yeast
The gene HEX1 encodes the secreted hydrolytic enzyme, β-N acetylglucosaminidase. Production of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase by C.albicans is induced by N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and the enzyme is secreted into the culture medium during either yeast or mycelial growth in the presence of GlcNAc. ...
101025 NADP-malic enzyme 1 gene 3’UTR and terminator
 
Flaveria bidentis - Coastal plain yellowtops, FLABI
 
101521 Napin gene promoter
 
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
 
104354 Napin gene promoter
 
Brassica rapa - Canola plant
 
104355 Napin gene terminator
 
Brassica rapa - Canola plant
 
48971 NDV-F gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Newcastle disease virus - Newcastle disease virus, NDV
NDV-F is a fusion glycoprotein. It mediates membrane fusion between the membrane of the virus and the plasma membrane of the host cell or between the plasma membranes of two cells, infected and uninfected.

15001 Neomycin Phosphotransferase II
Resistance to antibiotics - Kanamycin
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The nptII (neo) gene codes for an enzyme that phosphorylates kanamycin and confers resistance to this antibiotic. Typically used as a marker gene.
46097 niaD
 
 
Involved in nitrogen metabolism.
45912 nodD FITA
 
 
Donor Organism: This gene is a hybrid nodD gene consisting of 75% of the nodD1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti at the 5' end and 27% of the nodD gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii at the 3' end.

Activates normally inducible nod promoters from several rhizobial species to maximal levels, even in the absence of flavonoids.
45910 nodZ
 
Bradyrhizobium japonicum - Rhizobia
NodZ is a glycosyltransferase that is essential for the fucosylation (the process of adding fucose sugar units to a molecule) of the terminal reducing N-acetylglucosamine residue.

NodZ is involved in the synthesis and secretion of signal molecules, which are lipochitin oligosaccharides (LCOs).
45911 nolL
 
Mesorhizobium loti - Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
NolL is an acetyltransferase that is responsible for acetylation of the fucosyl residue.
15171 Nopaline Synthase Gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
Nopaline synthase is an enzyme which catalyses the synthesis of nopaline, an opine which is formed as the result of the condensation of the amino acid arginine and alpha-ketoglutaric acid. When wild-type A. tumefaciens infects a host plant, the opine synthase gene present on the T-DNA region of the Ti plasmid of the bacterium directs infected host cells to synthesize an opine, such as nopaline. The type of opine produced is specific to the particular strain of A. tumefaciens. ...
100270 Nopaline Synthase Gene Promoter
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
100269 Nopaline Synthase Gene Terminator
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
104673 Octopine Synthase Gene Leader Sequence
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
100271 Octopine Synthase Gene Terminator
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
104820 Omega 5' untranslated leader
 
Tobacco mosaic virus - TMV
 
103841 OpIE2 Promoter
 
Orgyia pseudotsugata multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus - OpMNPV
 
101419 Optimized Transit Peptide
 
 
 
104807 ORF1 3' Untranslated region
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
104806 ORF23 3' Untranslated region
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
100363 ORF25 PolyA Terminator sequence
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
46076 Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Candida albicans - Yeast
Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase is an enzyme of pyrimidine biosynthesis. It is typically used as a molecular genetic marker, but decreased expression when integrated at ectopic chromosomal locations can cause defects in hyphal growth and virulence.
100380 P45 Lactococcal promoter
 
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis - Streptococcus, Strep
 
105595 Pal2 gene Promoter
 
Phaseolus vulgaris - String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean , PHAVU
 
104682 Palmitoyl acyl carrier protein thioesterase 5'UTR
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
104662 PC1SV Promoter
 
Peanut chlorotic streak virus - PCSV, PClSV
 
101930 PEMV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Mosaic virus
Pea enation mosaic virus 1 - PEMV-1
The cp gene from PEMV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Pea enation mosaic virus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by PEMV.
104813 Per5 3' Untranslated Region
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
100368 Peroxidase gene promoter
 
Triticum aestivum - Wheat
 
105055 Pg47 Promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104364 Phaseolin 3' Terminator
 
Phaseolus vulgaris - String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean , PHAVU
 
15002 Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene
Resistance to herbicides - Glufosinate
Streptomyces viridochromogenes - STRVR
The pat gene codes for the enzyme phosphinothricin-acetyltransferance (PAT) and leads to increased tolerance to glufosinate-containing herbicides.
101404 Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase gene promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
101406 Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, intron 9
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104350 Phosphofructokinase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Carbohydrates
Lactobacillus bulgaricus
Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is involved in the glycolosis chain by catalysing the conversion of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
15003 Phosphomannose Isomerase gene
Mannose tolerance
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) catalyzes the reversible interconversion of mannose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. Plant cells lacking this enzyme are incapable of surviving on synthetic medium containing mannose as a carbon source.
105183 Phosphoserine aminotransferase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Salmonella typhimurium - SALTM
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine.
102616 Photosystem II 44 kDa protein (psbC) terminator
 
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
 
15378 phyA gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content
Phytate degradation
Aspergillus niger
The phy gene produces a fungal 3-phytase. This enzyme can be utilized to increase the breakdown of plant phytates which bind phosphorus. Phytate is the major storage form of phosphorus in many seeds and phytate-bound phosphorus is unavailable to monogastric animals. Since monogastric animals are not able to degrade this molecule, much of the phosphorus bound to phytate passes into the environment through the manure. ...
103621 Phytoene Desaturase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Vitamins
Erwinia uredovora
Catalyses four-step dehydrogenation reactions in the carotionoid synthesis pathway yielding lycopene.
103620 Phytoene Synthase 1 gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Vitamins
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
Phytoene synthase is a transferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. It catalyzes the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene
105062 Phytoene Synthase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Vitamins
Narcissus pseudonarcissus - Wild daffodil, Lent lily, Daffodil, NARPS
Phytoene Synthase is a transferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. It catalyzes the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene.
41317 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
The Resistance gene is a member of the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site - Leucine Rich Repeat) class and codes for a protein that recognise specific proteins - termed elicitor proteins - of Phytophthora infestans the causing agent of late-blight disease. ...
102164 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Solanum stoloniferum - Wild potato
The Resistance gene is a member of the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site - Leucine Rich Repeat) class and codes for a protein that recognise specific proteins - termed elicitor proteins - of Phytophthora infestans the causing agent of late-blight disease. ...
102155 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 1
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Solanum venturii - Wild Potato
The Resistance gene is a member of the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site – Leucine Rich Repeat) class and codes for a protein that recognise specific proteins – termed elicitor proteins - of Phytophthora infestans the causing agent of late-blight disease. ...
103777 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 1 Promoter
 
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
 
103778 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 1 Terminator
 
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
 
41318 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 2
Resistance to diseases and pests - Phytophthora infestans resistance
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
The Resistance gene is a member of the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site - Leucine Rich Repeat) class and codes for a protein that recognise specific proteins - termed elicitor proteins - of Phytophthora infestans the causing agent of late-blight disease. ...
103775 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 2 Promoter
 
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
 
103776 Phytophthora infestans Resistance gene 2 Terminator
 
Solanum bulbocastaneum - Nightshade, Ornamental nightshade
 
103650 PK Protein Kinase
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Suid herpesvirus 1 - SHV-1
The mechanism by which PK affects virulence is unknown. Although purified PK can phosphorylate a major viral protein in vitro which is also phosphorylated in vivo, the physiological substrate and function of PK are unknown.
103751 PLRV Coat Protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV)
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV)
The coat protein (CP) of luteoviruses, such as PLRV, is reported to be responsible for many viral characteristics including serological properties, transmission specificity, cross-protection and mutual exclusion.
104847 PLRV Replicase gene
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV)
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV)
The PLRVrep gene comprises of the two overlapping ORF1 and ORF2 sequence of the PLRV genome which together encode a full length 110kD PLRV replicase protein.

The ORF1 gene encodes the putative viral replicase domain that is required for viral RNA synthesis. The ORF2 gene encodes the putative viral helicase domain that is required for viral RNA synthesis.
101412 pMc5-8 plasmid vector
 
 
 
15015 Polygalacturonase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC
The polygalacturonase gene encodes the polygalacturonase (PG) enzyme, which is responsible for the breakdown of cell wall pectin during the softening of fruits that takes place during ripening.

Pectin is a building block in plant cell walls and is what gives fruits their firmness. Fruits with reduced PG activity have a slower cell wall breakdown, higher viscosity and delayed softening.
104802 Polyubiquitin10 gene promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
104309 PPV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses
Plum Pox Virus - PPV, Sharka
The cp gene from PPV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Plum Pox Virus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by PPV.
104338 Proteinase inhibitor II gene
Resistance to diseases and pests
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
Plant protease inhibitors such as PinII have been proposed to function as part of the plant defense system. Protease inhibitors are abundant proteins in the storage organs and seeds of plants In addition, their synthesis is induced to high levels in response to stress, infection and wounding.
100367 Proteinase inhibitor II gene terminator
 
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
 
15026 PRSV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Papaya ringspot potyvirus resistance
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)
The cp gene from PRSV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Papaya ringspot virus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by PRSV.
101021 Ps7s7
 
Subterranean clover stunt virus - SCSV, Subterranean clover stunt virus
 
101940 PSbMV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses
Pea Seed-borne Mosaic Virus - PSbMV
The cp gene from PSbMV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Pea Seed-borne Mosaic Virus coat protein. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by PSbMV.
103097 PsbY transit peptide
 
Spinacia oleraceae - Spinach, Common spinach
 
101407 pTA29 pollen specific promoter
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
101408 P-tac promoter
 
 
 
100291 pTiAch5 Ti plasmid
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
101411 pUC origin of replication
 
 
 
101410 pUC19 plasmid
 
 
 
15020 PVY coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Potato virus Y (PVY)
Potato virus Y (PVY)
The cp gene from PVY encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Potato virus Y strain O. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by PVY.
103123 Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, Intron 3
 
Flaveria trinervia - Clustered Yellowtops, speedyweed, flaveria, yellow twinstem
 
15416 Quinolinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase gene
Reduced nicotine content
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
The NtQPT1 gene codes for quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPTase). This enzyme is responsible for the production of nicotinic acid, a nicotine precursor.
104448 Quinolinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase gene Promoter
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
100344 Rabies Glycoprotein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses
Rabies virus - Rabies virus
The rabies virus glycoprotein (G) forms surface projections through the viral lipid envelope and is the only protein capable of inducing and reacting with virus-neutralizing antibody. IDuring virus uptake by the host cell, G must interact efficiently with cell surface receptors that can mediate rapid internalization of the virus.
104795 RB7 matrix attachment region
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
102611 rbcL ribosomal binding site
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
This is the ribosome binding site of the large subunit of a multimeric enzyme (RuBisCo) involved in photosynthesis. A ribosomal binding site (RBS) is a sequence on mRNA that is bound by the ribosome when initiating protein translation.
100349 rbcS Promoter
 
Helianthus annuus - Sunflower
 
103851 rbcS Promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
103853 rbcS Terminator
 
Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
 
103616 rbcS Transit Peptide
 
Pisum sativum - garden pea
 
101902 rbcS Transit Peptide
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
101877 rbcS-E9 gene terminator
 
Pisum sativum - garden pea
 
103740 Red Fluorescent Protein gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Discosoma sp. - Coral anemones, Sea anemones
The red fluorescent protein (RFP) is a protein that exhibits bright red fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range
100364 Rice actin 1 gene promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
100355 Rice actin 1, intron
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
100381 rrnB Terminator
 
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
 
103768 RuBisCO small subunit gene 5'UTR
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104632 RuBisCo SSU Terminator
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
101870 RZM Genetic Element
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Beet necrotic yellow virus (BNYV)
Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus - BNYVV
RNA 1 encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or replicase protein responsible for the propagation of Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV).

The RZM genetic element is the inverted repeat of a part of the RNA-1 gene transcript of the BNYVV.

In plants carrying the RZM gene, it confers resistance to Rhizomania disease caused by BNYVV by disrupting the replication process of the virus thus leading to a reduction in the development of the virus in the plant.
15017 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Bacteriophage T3 - Phage T3, T3
The SAMase gene encodes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) hydrolase which is capable of degrading and thus reducing SAM. The conversion of SAM to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the first step in ethylene biosynthesis and the lack of sufficient pools of SAM results in significantly reduced synthesis of this phytohormone, which is known to play a key role in fruit ripening.
15387 S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Ripening
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
The sam gene encodes the enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase, and causes delayed ripening. S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase is capable of degrading and thus reducing S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The conversion of SAM to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the first step in ethylene biosynthesis and the lack of sufficient pools of SAM results in significantly reduced synthesis of this phytohormone, which is known to play a key role in fruit ripening.
103895 SAMS Promoter
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
104818 SCP1 promoter
 
 
 
102033 SEKDEL ER retention signal
 
 
 
101929 Serine protease inhibitor gene
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Galleria mellonella - Wax moth, Honeycomb Moth
Gene expression is induced during humoral immune response of Galleria mellonella against fungal pathogens.
104313 Silk Proteinase Inhibitor 2
Resistance to diseases and pests - Bacteria, Fungi
Galleria mellonella - Wax moth, Honeycomb Moth
Silk Proteinase Inhibitor 2 (SPI 2) is a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor that was identified within the silk of [i]Galleria mellonella[/i]. Based on its effect on bacterial and fungal proteinases, and on the developmental profile of its production, it is assumed that it protects silk proteins from microbial destruction.
101519 Sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
In oilseed rape plants Sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) catalyses the conversion of sinapoylglucose to sinapoyl-choline (sinapine).

A number of plant components like sinapic acid esters restrict the use of oilseed rape products in human and animal nutrition. In oilseed rape these compounds are present in much higher concentrations than in other oil-rich seeds, which accounts for the bitter taste and astringency of oilseed rape products. ...
103024 Single-chain Fragment variable (scFv) antibody BA11
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Antibodies and antigens
Mus musculus - Mouse, House mouse
The single chain antibody scFv BA11 is a synthetic molecule comprised from the variable fragments of a complete IgG antibody which are linked by a synthetic peptide through phage display-technology. The scFv BA11 antibody targets F4-fimbria of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cells that attach to the intestinal wall of pigs and might cause diarrhea.
105733 Slow Anion Channel-Associated 1 gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
The plasma membrane protein SLAC1 is essential for stomatal closure in response to CO2, abscisic acid, ozone, light/dark transitions, humidity change, calcium ions, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide.
103626 Sorghum bicolor legumin protein Terminator
 
Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
 
101520 Stilbene Synthase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Antioxidants, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)
Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi
Tolerance to abiotic stress
Vitis vinifera - Grape Vine
Stilbene synthase catalyses the conversion of p-Cumaroyl-CoA to resveratrol.

Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) belongs to the flavonoid group of compounds and is classed among the phytoalexins.Phytoalexins are a class of antibiotic polyphenol compounds that form part of the plant defence system. Resveratrol was first identified and isolated from Japanese knotweed plants, but it is also present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), pine, linseed, sesame seed and peanuts. ...
103887 Stilbene Synthase Terminator
 
Vitis vinifera - Grape Vine
 
48458 Stomatal density and distribution 1 gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress - Drought
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
The gene product of the sdd1-gene (stomatal density and distribution), SDD1 is a subtilisin-like serine protease, which evidently functions as a negative regulator of guard cell development.

The overexpression of SDD1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana causes a reduction of guard cell density to approximately 40% of the wild type.
48460 Stomatal density and distribution 1 gene
Tolerance to abiotic stress - Drought
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
The gene product of the sdd1 gene (stomatal density and distribution), SDD1 is a subtilisin-like serine protease, which evidently functions as a negative regulator of guard cell development.

The overexpression of SDD1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana causes a reduction of guard cell density to approximately 40% of the wild type.
46095 Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase gene
Increased inulin
Helianthus tuberosus - Sunflower, Jerusalem artichokes , Sunroot, Sunchoke
Involved in inulin biosynthesis by catalysing the synthesis of trisaccharide 1-kestose from two molecules of sucrose, thereby releasing glucose.
103217 Synthetic cry1C gene
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) - armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
 
Spodoptera insect pest control
103553 Synthetic elastin-like protein
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal)
Use in industrial applications
 
Elastin is a structural protein found in mammals that confers elasticity to connective tissues. Examples for the function of elastin are the elasticity of big blood vessels such as the aorta or the dimensional stability of pulmonary alveolis. Elastin is made up of two domain types: A hydrophobic domain consisting of repeats of oligopeptides rich in glycin, alanine, valine and proline alternating with a hydrophilic domain that also incorporates lysine residues. ...
105606 Synthetic Minimal Plant promoter
 
 
 
48457 Synthetic spider silk protein coding sequence
Use in industrial applications
Nephila clavipes - Golden silk orbweaver spider
The SO1 gene comprises the repetitive part of the naturally occuring MaSpl gene; The 3´-localised non-repetitive sequence of approximately 180 bp was removed from SO1.

The genes MaSpI and MaSpII encode the spider silk proteins in the dragline core fibre of the golden silk orbweaver spider Nephila clavipes.

For more information on MaSpI and MaSpII see BCH records: 48455 and 48456
103758 telAB gene
Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Enterobacter aerogenes - Enterobacter
This gene, along with kilA, confers resistance to the chemical compound potassium tellurite (K2TeO3). The use of this gene as marker was developed to suit strains that were aimed to be released in field trials, where it is not desirable to use antibiotic resistance genes as marker tools for tracking the bacteria. Makes selective plating on potassium tellurite possible.
100356 Terminator of the wheat heat shock protein 17.3
 
Triticum aestivum - Wheat
 
105038 tet Operator Sequences
 
Escherichia coli - ECOLX
 
101618 Tetanus toxoid
Resistance to diseases and pests - Bacteria
Clostridium tetani - Tetanus bacterium
Tetanus toxoid is an active immunizing agent prepared from detoxified tetanus toxin that produces an antigenic response in the body, conferring permanent immunity to tetanus infection.
101475 Tetracycline-controlled transactivator
Conditional lethality
 
Tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTAV) is a synthetic protein coding sequence based on a fusion of sequences from Escherichia coli and Herpes simplex virus (VP16 transcriptional activator). ...
104664 TEV 5' Untranslated Region
 
Tobacco etch virus - TEV
 
15005 Thioesterase
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. DHA)
Umbellularia californica - Laurel, California Bay Laurel, UMBCA
The TE gene codes for the enzyme 12:0 ACP thioesterase which is active in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of developing seeds and causes the accumulation of triacylglycerides containing esterified lauric acid and, to a lesser extent, myristic acid.
103753 Thylakoid membrane protein gene promoter
 
Amaranthus hybridus - Slim Amaranth, Green Amaranth, Pigweed
 
101415 Ti plasmid left border repeat
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
101416 Ti plasmid right border repeat
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
103750 Tilapia Growth Hormone gene
Changes in physiology and/or production - Growth rate
Oreochromis hornorum x Oreochromis aureus - Hybrid tilapia
Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals.
103067 Transcript 7 gene 3' untranslated region
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
103642 Transcription termination factor
 
pSVL plasmid
 
100360 Transit peptide and first intron of Rubisco SSU
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104340 Tumour Morphology Large gene terminator
 
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, RHIRD
 
103927 Ubiquitin 5' Untranslated Region
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
104873 Ubiquitin 7 gene Promoter
 
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
 
101874 Ubiquitin gene 3 promoter
 
Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
 
100362 Ubiquitin gene promoter
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
101941 Ubiquitin gene promoter
 
Saccharum sp. - Sugar cane
 
103627 Ubiquitin Intron 1
 
Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
 
101523 UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Protein and amino acids
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
As a step in the biosynthesis of sinapine the UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase catalyses the conversion of sinapic acid to sinapoyl glucose.

A number of plant components including sinapic acid esters restrict the use of oilseed rape products in human and animal nutrition.

In oilseed rape these compounds are present in much higher concentrations than in other oil-rich seeds, which accounts for the bitter taste and astringency of oilseed rape products. ...
105173 UL32 gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Gallid herpesvirus 1 - ILTV
UL32 is a glycoprotein that plays a role in efficient localization of neo-synthesized capsids to nuclear replication compartments, thereby controlling cleavage and packaging of virus genomic DNA.
103026 Unknown seed protein-promoter
 
Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
 
102337 Vancomycin resistant acinetobacter
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Insulin
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
uptake of glucose
14990 Vegetative insecticidal protein 3A
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
The vip3A gene codes for a vegetative insecticidal protein which confers tolerance to lepidopteran insect pests such as the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), and cotton leaf perforator (Bucculatrix thurberiella).
100887 Vegetative insecticidal protein 3Aa20
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Vip3A is a group of vegetative insecticidal proteins (i.e., produced during the vegetative stage of bacterial growth) from [i]Bacillus thuringiensis[/i], a gram-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. The Vip3A proteins are highly toxic to some lepidopteran insects. ...
105223 Viral Protein 2 gene
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Infectious bursal disease virus - Gumboro virus
VP2 is a component of the IBDV viral capsid. It is the major host-protective immunogen of IBDV, and contains the immunogenic regions responsible for the induction of neutralising antibodies.
102024 Viral protein 60
Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) - Vaccines
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus - RHDV
The viral capsid protein VP60 is a structural protein of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The VP60 protein alone does not trigger the disease in rabbits.

The vaccines used in this case contain inactivated virus and thus the VP60 protein.
15024 WMV-2 coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Mosaic virus - Watermelon mosaic virus-2 (WMV2)
Watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV-2)
The cp gene from WMV-2 encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Watermelon mosaic virus-2. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by WMV-2.
103726 WRKY45
Resistance to diseases and pests - Bacteria, Fungi
Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
The WRKY45 transcription factor is upregulated during the Benzothiadiazole (BTH)-induced disease resistance which sets off a signalling cascade that protects plants from diseases by activating the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway
103215 X-Gene Cotton
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) - Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.)
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Insecticidal protein
101900 XYZ gene promoter
 
Cassava vein mosaic virus - Cassava vein mosaic virus, CVMV, CsVMV
 
100278 Zeaxanthin epoxidase gene
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Tolerance to abiotic stress
Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
The ZEP protein (EC 1.14.13.90) catalyzes the epoxidation of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin. Violaxanthin serves as a precursor molecule for many carotenoids, such as the phytohormone abscisic acid. ...
15025 ZYMV coat protein
Resistance to diseases and pests - Viruses - Mosaic virus - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)
The cp gene from ZYMV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by ZYMV.
104359 α' subunit of β-conglycinin gene promoter
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 
103856 α' subunit of β-conglycinin gene terminator
 
Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
 

   
   
Update on 2014-08-28
United Nations Environment Programme United Nations