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Record information and status
Record ID
103533
Status
Published
Date of creation
2012-05-15 15:22 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of last update
2012-05-25 18:52 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2012-06-01 19:12 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
Title
Ecological monitoring of genetically modified organisms
Author
Traxler, A.; Heissenberger, A.; Frank, G.; Lethmayer, C.; Gaugitsch, H
Author’s contact information
Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Federal Environment Agency Ltd)
Spittelauer Lände 5, A-1090 Wien (Vienna), Austria
Language(s)
  • English
Publication date
2001
Subject
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Table of Contents:

SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
2 LEGAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE MONITORING OF GMOs
2.1 Monitoring according to Directive 90/220/EEC
2.2 Monitoring according to Directive 2001/18/EC
2.2.1 The new Annex VII (monitoring plan for the placing on the market of GMOs)
2.2.2 Specifying Annex VII by way of guidance notes
2.2.3 Establishment and Assessment of Monitoring Plans
2.2.4 Exchange of information and reporting duties with respect to monitoring
2.2.5 Confidentiality
2.3 Overlapping of Directive 2001/18/EC with other EU-Directives
2.4 National legal provisions in relation to targets of nature conservation
2.5 Convention on Biological Diversity
3 FRAMEWORK CONCEPT AND GUIDELINES FOR MONITORING OF GMOs
3.1 Framework concept for ecological monitoring ofgenetically modified organisms
3.1.1 Case-specific monitoring
3.1.2 General surveillance
3.1.3 Ecosystem monitoring of environmental effects of GMOs
3.1.4 Monitoring of the state of the art
3.1.5 Monitoring as early warning system
3.2 Guidelines for the establishment and examination of ecological monitoring plans
3.2.1 Guidelines for ecological monitoring for releases
3.2.2 Guidelines for ecological monitoring for the placing on the market
3.3 Financing
3.3.1 Estimated costs of monitoring for releases
3.3.2 Financing of post-marketing monitoring
3.4 Participation of the public
3.4.1 Participation of the public as set out in the EU Directives 90/220/EEC and 2001/18/EC
3.4.2 Proposals for the participation of the public in assessing monitoring plans
3.5 Organization, implementation, competence
3.5.1 Competence for the monitoring of GMOs
3.6 Terminology
3.6.1 Safety research
3.6.2 Unclear definition of related research and monitoring
3.6.2.1 Post-marketing monitoring
3.6.2.2 Cultivation-related monitoring
3.6.2.3 Sections of environmental monitoring
3.6.3 Direct, indirect, immediate and delayed effects
3.6.4 Damage and risk
3.7 Interaction of risk assessment and monitoring
3.8 Monitoring in a tiered system from release to placing on the market
3.8.1 "Thirst for knowledge" versus safety in releases
3.9 Criteria of ecological monitoring
3.9.1 Time lags in testing
3.9.2 Measurability of parameters
3.9.3 Comparison of transgenic and traditional crop plants
3.9.4 Risk and damage parameters
3.9.5 Suspension criteria
3.9.6 Analysis and interpretation of the results
3.9.7 Harmonisation and advances of monitoring techniques
3.9.8 Interdisciplinary aspects of area selection
3.9.9 Test networks in international co-operation
3.10 Higher risk factors
3.10.1 Habitat of the area under cultivation
3.10.2 Dispersal of GMOs into distant areas
3.10.3 Introgression of transgenic genetic material into related species
3.11 Experimental requirements for test sites during the releaseand placing on the market of GMOs
3.11.1 Test design on release sites
3.11.2 Test field size
3.11.3 Basic floral survey of the release site
3.11.4 Homogeneity criteria
3.11.5 Test design, spatial replications
3.11.6 Destructive methods and disturbance effects of test plots
4 MONITORING PARAMETERS AND TEST METHODS
4.1 Standard parameters and methods of plant ecology
4.2 Biochemical monitoring methods
4.3 Ornithological monitoring methods
4.4 Entomological monitoring methods
4.4.1 Entomological methods and parameters
4.5 Soil analyses
4.5.1 Soil microbiology/soil function
4.5.1.1 Parameters
4.5.1.2 Methods of basic soil analyses
4.5.1.3 Soil function
4.5.1.4 Diversity analyses
4.5.1.5 Zoological soil investigations
5 ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION TARGETS IN AUSTRIA
5.1 Habitats of agroecosystems
5.1.1 Man-influenced pioneer biotopes
5.1.1.1 Fields
5.1.2 Agrotopes
5.1.3 Ruderal biotopes
5.1.4 Fallow fields, grassland and vineyards
5.1.4.1 Fallow fields (complete fallows)
5.1.4.2 Fallow grassland
5.1.4.3 Fallow vineyards
5.1.4.4 Entomologic aspects of fallow land
5.1.5 Gravel, sand and clay pits, quarries (closed-down mining areas)
5.1.5.1 Open mining areas (sand and gravel, dumps)
5.1.5.2 Open mining areas with heavy soils (clay, loamy and muddy soils)
5.1.5.3 Entomologic aspects of sand, gravel and clay pits
5.1.6 Semi-natural or natural habitats
5.1.6.1 Alluvial soils of river streams and riparian areas
5.1.7 The soil as a habitat
5.1.7.1 Soil protection
5.1.7.2 Significance of soil organisms for the soil function
5.2 Ornithological protection targets in agroecosystems
5.2.1 Conservation of species diversity
5.2.2 List of endangered breeding birds characteristic of agroecosystems
5.2.3 List of endangered food and winter guests in agroecosystems
5.2.4 Conservation of habitats of particular ornithological significancein agroecosystems
5.2.4.1 Sandy soils
5.2.4.2 Acid soils poor in nutrients
5.2.4.3 Wet and heavy soils
5.2.4.4 Upland fields in inner-Alpine valleys
5.2.4.5 Gravel, sand and clay pits
5.2.4.6 Agrotopes
5.2.4.7 Agricultural areas under organic farming
5.2.4.8 Fallow areas
5.2.4.9 Gravel areas (along river streams)
5.2.5 Protection of Important Bird Areas
5.2.6 Protection targets in habitats outside of agroecosystems
5.2.6.1 Protection targets in orchards
5.3 Protection targets according to the Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Directive
5.3.1 Plant species and habitats according to Annex I and II of the Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Directive
5.3.2 Insects in agroecosystems according to Annex II of the FFH-Directive
5.4 Plant communities
5.4.1 Segetal communities (wild field herbs)
5.4.1.1 Stellarietea mediae
5.4.2 Ruderal habitats
5.4.2.1 Polygono arenastri-Poetea annuae
5.4.2.2 Stellarietea mediae (therophyte-rich synanthropic communities)
5.4.3 Seminatural habitats
5.4.3.1 Epilobietea angustifolii
5.4.3.2 Calluno-Ulicetea (Dwarf heaths)
5.4.3.3 Koelerio-Corynephoretea
5.4.3.4 Isoeto Nanojuncetea (dwarf-sedges)
5.4.4 Natural or semi-natural habitats with a high capacity for invasion
5.4.4.1 Bidentetea tripartiti
5.5 Red Lists of endangered plants in Austria
5.6 Red Lists of endangered animals in Austria
5.7 Biodiversity and ecosystem protection
6 REGIONAL ASPECTS IN AUSTRIA
6.1 Biogeographical regions
6.2 Description of regional aspects using potential crossing partners of oilseed rape
7 REFERENCES

Thematic areas
  • Scientific and technical issues
    • Risk assessment
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Yes
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
  • 6. Monitoring of Living Modified Organisms Released into the Environment
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Report / Review / Fact sheet / Notes
Identifier
ISBN 3-85457-607-2
Publisher and its location
Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Federal Environment Agency Ltd)
Rights
© Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Wien, 2001
Format
87 page PDF