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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2019-05-29 17:19 UTC (cjg072@mail.usask.ca)
Date of publication
2019-07-04 20:13 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)

General Information
Genetically modified crops, regulatory delays, and international trade
Stuart J. Smyth
Author’s contact information
Stuart J. Smyth, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A8, Canada.
Tel: 1-306-966-2929; Fax: 306-966-8413
E-mail: stuart.smyth@usask.ca
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Genetically modified (GM) crops have been produced in the initial adopting countries for 20 years. Over this period of time, hundreds of articles and reports have been published by academic journals, government regulatory agencies, and national science organizations on the safety aspects of biotechnology and GM crops. In addition to this, there is a growing body of quantified peer reviewed literature on the economic and environmental benefits following the adoption of GM crops in both developed and developing countries. Some estimates place the economic benefits in the billions of dollars a year range. In spite of the documentation of these economic and environmental benefits, GM crops face a challenging future. Environmental nongovernmental organizations (eNGOs) are relentless in their campaigns of misinformation about the dangers and hazards of GM crops. While eNGOs are unable to quantify their claims and accusations, their political and policy influences continue, particularly in Europe and numerous developing nations. The result of this is regulatory delays for the approval of new GM crops and frequent international commodity trade failures, where shipments have been rejected due to the low‐level presence of a GM crop. Taken in combination, the regulatory and trade challenges facing GM crops are having a detrimental impact on improving food security. This article quantifies the benefits of GM crops, highlights the regulatory costs of delayed approval, and provides insights into the spillover effects from GM crop trade.
Thematic areas
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Article (journal / magazine / newspaper)
doi: 10.1002/fes3.100
Publisher and its location
John Wiley & Sons Ltd. and the Association of Applied Biologists.
© 2017 The Author
9 pages
Food and Energy Security 2017 6(2): 78-86
Keywords and any other relevant information
Adoption impacts, biotechnology, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, environmental nongovernmental organizations, food security, risk