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The rapeseed line pHoe6/Ac was genetically engineered to express
tolerance to glufosinate ammonium, the active ingredient in
phosphinothricin herbicides (Basta®, Rely®, Finale®, and Liberty®).
Glufosinate tolerance in pHoe6/Ac rapeseed is the result of
introducing a synthetic copy of the gene encoding the enzyme
phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) isolated from the common
aerobic soil actinomycete, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, the same
organism from which glufosinate was originally isolated. The PAT
enzyme catalyzes the acetylation of phosphinothricin, detoxifying
it into an inactive compound. The PAT enzyme is not known to have
any toxic properties.
The term Recipient organism refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas Parental organisms refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
- Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Ti plasmid right border repeat
Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene
CaMV 35S terminator
Ti plasmid left border repeat
Canola with tolerance to the herbicide phosphinothricin
(Glufosinate ammonium) conferred through insertion of a copy of the
phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (pat) gene from the aerobic
actinomycete Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Since the native pat
gene has a high G:C content, which is atypical for plants, a
modified nucleotide sequence was synthesised using codons preferred
by plants. The amino acid sequence remains unchanged.
DNA-based methods available include PCR and Southern-Blot
methodology. They allow detection and identification of the event
Liberator pHoe6/Ac through detection of nucleotide sequences that
are specific to these events.
Protein-based methods available include quantitative methods (e.g.
specific PAT protein ELISA test) or qualitative methods (e.g. Trait
LL Leaf Test kit) based on the specific interaction between
antibodies and the PAT protein produced by the introduced gene.
They allow detection and identification of glufosinate-ammonium
herbicide tolerance trait through detection of the PAT protein in
the product. Protein-based methodology offers an easier-to-use
alternative to DNA-based methodology.
In addition to these methods, control samples of the product
genetic material are available.
Glufosinate chemically resembles the amino acid glutamate and acts
to inhibit an enzyme, called glutamine synthetase, which is
involved in the synthesis of glutamine. Essentially, glufosinate
acts enough like glutamate, the molecule used by glutamine
synthetase to make glutamine, that it blocks the enzyme's usual
activity. Glutamine synthetase is also involved in ammonia
detoxification. The action of glufosinate results in reduced
glutamine levels and a corresponding increase in concentrations of
ammonia in plant tissues, leading to cell membrane disruption and
cessation of photosynthesis resulting in plant withering and death.