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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2003-11-19 04:31 UTC (Masahiro.MIYAZAKO@oecd.org)
Date of last update
2020-02-26 14:10 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2020-02-26 14:10 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)

Organism information
Scientific name
Dianthus caryophyllus
Taxonomic Classification
SpeciesDianthus caryophyllus
Common name(s)
Additional Classification
Type of organism
Organism domestication
  • Domesticated
Characteristics related to biosafety
Centre(s) of origin
It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years.
Habitat range
Many Dianthus species occur as common wildflowers. There has never been any evidence of hybridization between carnation and these species, nor after decades of cultivation have carnations been found in the wild. Carnation has no weedy characteristics and is not closely related to known weeds.
Common use(s)
  • Ornamental
Additional Information
Additional Information
Dianthus caryophyllus or carnation does not display hazardous or weedy characteristics and is used in the floriculture industry for cut flowers. Modern cultivars are maintained by vegetative propagation.

The biology of carnation is such that there are no reasonable means for the genetically modified plants to escape from cultivation and become established as populations in the wild, or for gene dispersal from the genetically modified carnation to occur. The commercial standard carnation varieties are generally male sterile and rarely produce anthers; and if they do, little pollen is produced and this can only be transferred by insects. In commercial carnation production, outcrossing is unlikely as flowers are cut before opening. Should flowers open, only certain insects are easily able to access nectaries in flowers and there are very few opportunities for this to occur during transit and sale. Furthermore, carnations plants require 6 weeks for seed development and cut carnation flowers last only 3-4 weeks, which is not enough time for seed set.

Other relevant website address or attached documents

Records referencing this document (32)
32record(s) found
Gene and DNA Sequence5 records
Modified Organism27 records