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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2012-02-06 15:02 UTC (fred.wassenaar@rivm.nl)
Date of last update
2012-05-25 18:50 UTC (fred.wassenaar@rivm.nl)
Date of publication
2012-06-01 19:09 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
Hybridization and introgression between Brassica napus and Brassica rapa in the Netherlands
Sheila H. Luijten, Tom J. de Jong
Author’s contact information
Institute of Biology Leiden, University Leiden, The Netherlands
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Hybridization between cultivated crops and their wild relatives can lead to introgression of genes from one species to another, providing a potential for preserving and recombining (modified) traits through time. For living modified Brassica napus this is of concern in the context of outcrossing of transgenes. In various countries all over the world non-transgenic and transgenic B. napus is found in road verges in the agricultural landscape, along transportation routes, at harbours or as a volunteer within other crops. In the Netherlands it has been found that B. napus had a scattered distribution pattern and local population sizes were generally small, although several larger populations were also found.
The focus of the project was on the gene flow from B. napus to B. rapa. Cross-pollination between B. napus (AACC) and B. rapa (AA) will produce an F1-hybrid (AAC). The F1-hybrid will have 29 chromosomes, 20 AA chromosomes and 9 C chromosomes from B. napus. Due to this uneven number of chromosomes and the preference of pairing between A-chromosomes, gametes of the flowering F1-hybrid have 10 A-chromosomes supplemented with zero to nine unpaired C-chromosomes. Hybrids can be detected by counting the number of extra chromosomes. However, a small fraction of the progeny will have no extra chromosomes and is therefore indistinguishable from B. rapa at level of flow cytometry and chromosome counting. The first backcross generation (BC1) probably has a lower fitness than the F1, suggesting that the chance that a transgene from B. napus will be incorporated in a B. rapa population is small, but not zero. The probability of introgression depends on the position of the transgene. If a transgene is positioned on an A-chromosome in B. napus it can potentially be transmitted to B. rapa in only two generations. If the transgene is located on one of the C-chromosomes introgression is less likely but still, the transgene can be incorporated into the A-genome after homeologous recombination between A- and C-chromosomes.
Thematic areas
  • Scientific and technical issues
    • Risk assessment
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
Information on Organisms or LMOs
Organism(s) identification
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
Brassica rapa - Canola plant
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Report / Review / Fact sheet / Notes
Publisher and its location
COGEM (Netherlands Commission on Genetic Modification), Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Copyright holder: the authors; the information may be used for educational, non-profit and official use
Keywords and any other relevant information
Access to the resource