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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2012-08-28 16:17 UTC (mwach@ilsi.org)
Date of last update
2012-08-28 16:46 UTC (mwach@ilsi.org)
Date of publication
2012-09-19 09:58 UTC (helmut.gaugitsch@umweltbundesamt.at)

This document is also available in the following languages:
General Information
A Review of the Environmental Safety of Vip3Aa
Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation
Author’s contact information
1156 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005 USA
Organization(s) involved in the publication of this resource
Center for Environmental Risk Assessment (CERA)
1156 15th Street, NW
Second Floor
Washington, DC
United States of America, 20005-1743
Phone:+1 202 659-3306
Fax:+1 202 659-3617
  • English
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Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
In 1996, a novel 88 kDa protein with insecticidal properties was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This protein was distinguishable from the well-studied Bt Cry proteins, differing by sequence homology and activity spectrum.

In addition, the protein was secreted by the cells, rather than stored within the bacteria as crystals, and it was synthesized during the vegetative phase of bacterial growth. Subsequently, a family of related proteins with similar properties was identified, and these proteins were designated Vegetative Insecticidal Proteins (Vip). A gene producing one member of this protein family, Vip3Aa, has been used to confer lepidopteran insect resistance to maize and cotton plants, alone and in combination with genes encoding Cry proteins.

This paper provides a comprehensive review of publicly available data, peer-reviewed studies, and regulatory decision summaries relevant to the environmental risk assessment of the Vip3Aa protein, as expressed in maize and cotton plants. Together this body of information indicates that the Vip3Aa protein is unlikely to cause harm to non-target organisms and does not alter the biology of maize or cotton plants in ways that would increase weediness or invasiveness.
Thematic areas
  • Biosafety policy and regulation
    • National/Domestic regulatory frameworks or guidelines
    • National policies
    • National administrative frameworks
    • National decision making system
  • Capacity building
  • LMO use and transboundary movement
  • Scientific and technical issues
    • Risk assessment
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
Information on Organisms or LMOs
Organism(s) identification
Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Gene(s) identification
Vegetative insecticidal protein 3Aa20 - Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU
Resistance to diseases and pests - Insects - Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Article (journal / magazine / newspaper)
Publisher and its location
ILSI Research Foundation
1156 15th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20005
Copyright © 2012 ILSI Research Foundation
19 page PDF
Original Document
Keywords and any other relevant information
Key words: Vip3Aa, Bacillus, thuringiensis, insect resistance, genetically engineered, environmental risk assessment