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Modified Organism
Cisgenic apples modified for elevated anthocyanin levels
Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2016-06-10 13:17 UTC (marco.gielkens@rivm.nl)
Date of publication
2016-06-17 17:50 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

Living Modified Organism identity
The image below identifies the LMO through its unique identifier, trade name and a link to this page of the BCH. Click on it to download a larger image on your computer. For help on how to use it go to the LMO quick-links page.

LMO name
Cisgenic apples modified for elevated anthocyanin levels
Transformation event
Multiple events
Plant Research International
Dept. Genetics and Breeding
Plant Research International (PRI)
PO Box 59
Netherlands, 6700 AB
Phone:+31 (0)317 48 36 80
Apple cultivars Jumani and Gala were modified with the insertion of the MdMYB10(R6) gene form Malus x domestica cultivar 'red field' resulting in an increased expression of anthocyanin leading to red fleshed apples.
Recipient Organism or Parental Organisms
The term Recipient organism refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas Parental organisms refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
Malus domestica - Apple, MALDO
Point of collection or acquisition of the recipient organism
Cultivars: Jumani and Gala
Characteristics of the transformation process
Techniques used for the modification
  • Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Genetic elements construct
Stopper Sequence
0.00 Kb
MdMYB10 transcription factor R6 promoter
0.00 Kb
MdMYB10 transcription factor
0.00 Kb
MdMYB10 transcription factor terminator
0.00 Kb
Stopper Sequence
0.00 Kb
Further details
Notes regarding the genetic elements introduced or modified in this LMO
A naturally occurring mutant of the MdMYB10 gene was identified in the cv. 'Red Field', in which the promoter carries a six-fold repeat of a 23 bp DNA binding domain (R6). The wild-type form only has one copy of this domain (R1). This mutation has been found in nearly all naturally occurring red-fleshed apples.

In apple, red-fleshed varieties are not considered to be very tasteful. In order to combine elevated anthocyanin levels with potential health-promoting antioxidant effect with high-quality of taste and other characteristics the R6 form of MdMYB10 was introduced into elite varieties.

Due to the long generation time and self-incompatibility of apple this cannot be achieved by classical breeding. The gene including its R6 promoter and its own terminator was the only genetic element present on the region to be inserted. On either side of the gene within the T-DNA a 11 bp stopper sequence was placed to avoid undesired readthrough.
LMO characteristics
Modified traits
Common use(s)
  • Research

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