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Cisgenic apples modified for elevated anthocyanin levels
Plant Research International
Dept. Genetics and Breeding
Plant Research International (PRI)
PO Box 59
Netherlands, 6700 AB
Apple cultivars Jumani and Gala were modified with the insertion of
the MdMYB10(R6) gene form Malus x domestica cultivar 'red
field' resulting in an increased expression of anthocyanin leading
to red fleshed apples.
The term Recipient organism refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas Parental organisms refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
Cultivars: Jumani and Gala
- Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
MdMYB10 transcription factor R6 promoter
MdMYB10 transcription factor
MdMYB10 transcription factor terminator
A naturally occurring mutant of the MdMYB10 gene was identified in
the cv. 'Red Field', in which the promoter carries a six-fold
repeat of a 23 bp DNA binding domain (R6). The wild-type form only
has one copy of this domain (R1). This mutation has been found in
nearly all naturally occurring red-fleshed apples.
In apple, red-fleshed varieties are not considered to be very
tasteful. In order to combine elevated anthocyanin levels with
potential health-promoting antioxidant effect with high-quality of
taste and other characteristics the R6 form of MdMYB10 was
introduced into elite varieties.
Due to the long generation time and self-incompatibility of apple
this cannot be achieved by classical breeding. The gene including
its R6 promoter and its own terminator was the only genetic element
present on the region to be inserted. On either side of the gene
within the T-DNA a 11 bp stopper sequence was placed to avoid
- Changes in quality and/or metabolite content
- Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin)