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Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Limited (Mahyco)
Jalna - Aurangabad Road,
Post Box no. 76,
The eggplant (brinjal, aubergine; Solanum melongena) has
been modified for resistance to Lepidoptera pests (Eggplant Fruit
and Shoot Borer) through the expression of a Bacillus
thuringiensis crystal protein Cry1Ac. The protein forms pores
in the midgut lining of susceptible pests, leading to cell lysis
and septicemia. For selection during transformation of the
eggplant, an Escherichia coli neomycin phosphotransferase
II cassette was inserted for kanamycin resistance. Additionally, a
bacterial gene cassette, E. coli
3''(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase, is also present and was
used for streptomycin/spectromycin selection during cloning.
The term Recipient organism refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas Parental organisms refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
See note in 'Additional information' section.
- Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Neomycin Phosphotransferase II
Nopaline Synthase Gene Terminator
CaMV Enhanced 35S promoter
α' subunit of β-conglycinin gene terminator
The modified eggplants contains three cassetes: Escherichia
coli neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), E.
coli 3''(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (aadA)
and Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac.
The nptII cassette is under control of a Cauliflower
mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and an Agrobacterium
tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) terminator.
The aadA coding sequence is under control of the
endogenous, bacterial promoter and terminator.
The cry1Ac cassette is under control of the CaMV 35S
enhanced promoter and Glycine max 3' region encoding the
7S alpha seed storage protein (α' subunit of β-conglycinin)
- Transcription of nptII and cry1Ac are expected
to occur at elevated levels due to the CaMV promoters.
- Transcription of aadA is not expected in the host
eggplant because the regulatory elements are only active in
bacteria (i.e. E. coli).
- Please refer to 'Additional information' section regarding
introgression of genetic cassettes into other varieties.
- Resistance to antibiotics
- Resistance to diseases and pests
- Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
- Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
To create the event EE-1, the transgene constructs were initially
introduced into brinjal line 60208, which has purple variegated,
oval fruit (see patent). However, it is important to note that EE-1
has been introgressed into (hybridized with) other varieties of
eggplant through open pollination. Thus, the modified eggplant may
have different names and phenotypes. Examples include:
- Bt Uttara (BARI Bt Brinjal-1): long, purple-coloured, cylindrical
fruits; plants are bushy
- Bt Kajla (BARI Bt Brinjal-2): long, black-purple, cylindrical
- Bt Nayantara (BARI Bt Brinjal-3): round, dark purple fruits
- Bt Iswardi or ISD006 (BARI Bt Brinjal-4): light green oblong