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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2021-03-23 19:40 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2021-03-23 19:40 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)

General Information
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) Biology, Management, and Relevance to GM Plant Detection for Sustainable Organic Agriculture
Aurélie Bak, Joanne B. Emerson
Author’s contact information
Joanne B. Emerson
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California
Davis, Davis, CA, United States

Kindly refer to the attached article for contact's email address
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
In today's global market, some organic farmers must meet regulatory requirements to demonstrate that their plants and feedstocks are genetically modified organism (GMO)-free. Many GM plants are engineered to contain a promoter from the plant virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), in order to facilitate expression of an engineered target gene. The relative ubiquity of this CaMV 35S promoter (P35S) in GM constructs means that assays designed to detect GM plants often target the P35S DNA sequence, but these detection assays can yield false-positives from plants that are infected by naturally-occurring CaMV or its relatives within the Caulimoviridae. This review places CaMV infection and these ambiguous GM plant detection assays in context, serving as a resource for industry professionals, regulatory bodies, and researchers at the nexus of organic farming and global commerce. We first briefly introduce GM plants from a regulatory perspective, and then we describe CaMV biology, transmission, and management practices, highlighting the relatively widespread nature of CaMV infection in both GM and non-GM crops within the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae families. Finally, we discuss current knowledge of public food safety related to the consumption of CaMV-infected produce.
Thematic areas
Information on Organisms or LMOs
Organism(s) identification
Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
Gene(s) identification
CaMV 35S promoter - Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Article (journal / magazine / newspaper)
Publisher and its location
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Open Access
PDF - 540 KB (8 pages)
Keywords and any other relevant information
CaMV, organic agriculture, qPCR, LMO; false positives; virology