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Modified Organism
ACS-GHØØ1-3 - Liberty Link™ cotton
Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2006-06-05 14:40 UTC (kirsty.mclean.consultant@cbd.int)
Date of last update
2013-01-30 17:09 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2013-01-30 17:09 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

Living Modified Organism identity
The image below identifies the LMO through its unique identifier, trade name and a link to this page of the BCH. Click on it to download a larger image on your computer. For help on how to use it go to the LMO quick-links page.

LMO name
Liberty Link™ cotton
Transformation event
Unique identifier
Cotton tolerant to glufosinate ammonium herbicide produced by inserting a modified phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) encoding gene (bar) from the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus.
Recipient Organism or Parental Organisms
The term Recipient organism refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas Parental organisms refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
Gossypium hirsutum - Cotton
Point of collection or acquisition of the recipient organism
Variety: Coker 312
Characteristics of the transformation process
Techniques used for the modification
  • Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Genetic elements construct
Ti plasmid right border repeat
0.02 Kb
CaMV 35S promoter
1.38 Kb
Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene
0.55 Kb
Nopaline Synthase Gene Terminator
0.26 Kb
Ti plasmid left border repeat
0.02 Kb
Further details
Notes regarding the genetic elements introduced or modified in this LMO
The initial two codons of the N-terminal of the bar gene coding sequence were synthetically modified to plant preferred codons.

Southern blot analysis indicated that a single intact copy of the T-DNA was integrated into the LLCotton25 line and no portions of the vector backbone were found in the LMO.
LMO characteristics
Modified traits
Common use(s)
  • Food
  • Feed
  • Fiber/textile
Additional Information
Additional Information
The cotton line LLCotton25 was developed to allow the use of glufosinate ammonium (trade name Liberty®), as a weed control option in cotton production. The herbicidal mode of action of glufosinate ammonium is related to the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), the enzyme required for the synthesis of the amino acid glutamine. L-phosphinothricin, the active ingredient of glufosinate ammonium, is a structural analog of glutamate, and acts as a competitive inhibitor. After application of the herbicide, L-phosphinothricin competes with glutamine for its active sites on GS. The results of the inhibition of GS are an accumulation of ammonia in the plant, a reduction in the synthesis of glutamine, and an inhibition of photosynthesis. This causes the death of plant cells, and eventually, the entire plant. This genetically engineered cotton line LLCotton25 contains the bar gene, which codes for the production of the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyl-transferase (PAT). This enzyme acetylates glufosinate ammonium, rendering it inactive in the plant. The expression of the bar gene in LLCotton25 allows it to survive the otherwise lethal application of glufosinate ammonium. The bar gene was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopius, a gram-positive soil bacterium.

LLCotton25 was developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the cotton variety 'Coker312' with a plasmid vector containing the bar gene. Whole plants were treated with glufosinate ammonium and successful transformants were detected by selecting plants that had not exhibited the phytotoxic effects of glufosinate ammonium
Other relevant website address or attached documents

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55record(s) found
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