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Gene and DNA Sequence
Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2006-06-09 15:02 UTC (kirsty.mclean.consultant@cbd.int)
Date of last update
2015-04-14 16:30 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2015-04-14 16:30 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General information
Name of the gene or DNA sequence
Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene
Alternate Genetic Element Name (synonyms)
Bialaphos resistance gene
Category of DNA sequence
  • Protein coding sequence
Is the gene / DNA sequence is a synthetic molecule?
Donor organism
Donor organism
Streptomyces hygroscopicus - STRHY
Characteristics of the protein coding sequence
Name of the protein expressed by the coding sequence
Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT)
Biological function
The glufosinate ammonium tolerance gene (bar gene), derived from the common soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus, codes for phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and leads to increased tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, such as Basta®, Rely®, Finale®, and Liberty®.

Glufosinate chemically resembles the amino acid glutamate and acts to inhibit an enzyme called glutamine synthetase, which is involved in the synthesis of glutamine. Essentially, glufosinate blocks the activity of glutamine synthetase by mimicking the enzyme's substrate glutamate which is used to produce glutamine. Glutamine synthetase is also involved in ammonia detoxification. The action of glufosinate results in reduced glutamine levels and a corresponding increase in concentrations of ammonia in plant tissues, leading to cell membrane disruption and cessation of photosynthesis resulting in plant withering and death.

Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) acts by catalyzing the acetylation of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) so that it no longer inhibits the enzyme glutamine synthase and, thus, eliminating its herbicidal activity.
Related trait(s) or use(s) in biotechnology
Additional Information
Additional Information
Similar to GENBANK accession X05822 (see link below).

Records referencing this document (725)
725record(s) found
Country's Decision or any other Communication318 records
Information Resource2 records
Modified Organism93 records
Organization11 records
Risk Assessment301 records