Gene registry | Biosafety Clearing-House

Genetic Element Registry

The Genetic Element Registry provides a summary of information on the genetic elements associated with the LMOs registered in the BCH, including information on the donor organism, conferred traits and biological function. The registry includes links to the records on each genetic element where more details may be found. LMOs containing the particular genetic element are referenced at the bottom of the individual record.

Click here to perform an in-depth search of all Genetic Element records available in this Registry.

Total records: 828
Record ID Name Trait(s) Donor organism Function
bch-gene-scbd-110890-1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA Converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid by incorporating an acyl moiety at the 2 position. This enzyme can utilize either acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP as the fatty acyl donor
bch-gene-scbd-110888-1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Escherichia coli - ECOLX Converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid by incorporating an acyl moiety at the 2 position. This enzyme can utilize either acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP as the fatty acyl donor
bch-gene-scbd-110889-1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Limnanthes douglasii - Douglas' meadowfoam, Poached egg plant, LIMDO The lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase gene from Limnanthes douglasii catalyses the linkage of erucic acid to the sn-2 position of lysophosphatidic acid. Expression of LPAAT in the seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape leads to significantly increased levels of the trigyceride Trierucin.
bch-gene-scbd-15012-5 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Ripening) Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA The ACC gene encodes for the carnation 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis which affects the rate of ripening in plants.
bch-gene-scbd-15014-7 1-amino-cyclopropane -1-carboxylic acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Ripening) Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC The ACC gene encodes a truncated copy of the tomato 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase encoding gene in order to suppress expression of the endogenous unmodified gene (which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis) through gene silencing.
bch-gene-scbd-15013-4 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Ripening) Pseudomonas chlororaphis - PSECL The ACCD gene encodes the enzyme ACCD. In the plant, this enzyme catalyzes metabolism of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-arboxylic acid (ACC), an essential precursor for the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene.
bch-gene-scbd-111938-2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase fragment Double-stranded RNA Ananas comosus - Pineapple, ANACO
bch-gene-scbd-102612-3 16S rRNA gene promoter Promoter Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-102615-4 16S rRNA gene promoter Promoter Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-116046-1 19-kDa zein gene terminator Terminator Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-111081-2 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase 1 Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production,Selectable marker genes and reporter genes Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Yeast, YEASX In plant cells a glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG), is phosphorylated by hexokinase to form 2-DOG-6-phosphate, which competes with glucose-6-phosphate causing cell death through the inhibition of glycolysis, protein synthesis, cell wall polysaccharide synthesis and also protein glycosylation. DOGR1 gene, which has been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C, encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. The enzyme has the ability to convert toxic 2-DOG-6-phosphate to non-toxic products through dephosphorylation. Therefore, transformed plant cells which carry the DOGR1 gene can be selected on medium containing 2-DOG.
bch-gene-scbd-115829-2 27 kDa gamma-zein seed storage protein signal peptide Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-116051-1 27-kDA gamma zein terminator Terminator Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-103622-5 27kD gamma-zein Promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-104339-3 2xOCS:35S Promoter Promoter -
bch-gene-scbd-15033-8 3"(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to antibiotics (Streptomycin) Escherichia coli - ECOLX The aadA gene confers resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics such as spectinomycin and streptomycin. The enzyme adenylates either the 3’-hydroxy on the amino-hexose III ring of streptomycin or the 9-hydroxyl on the actinamine ring of spectinomycin  Typically used as a marker gene.
bch-gene-scbd-114726-2 3' Noncoding region of Yellow fever virus Terminator Yellow fever virus - YFV 17D
bch-gene-scbd-115844-2 3' untranslated region of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase Terminator Setaria italica - Foxtail millet, Italian millet
bch-gene-scbd-115852-2 3' untranslated region of glycine-rich RNA binding-protein 3 Terminator Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-114701-3 3' Untranslated region of Histone 4 Terminator Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
bch-gene-scbd-115850-2 3' untranslated region of no apical meristem domain containing protein Terminator Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-109068-1 30S ribosomal protein S16 gene terminator Terminator Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-260479-1 3xP3 promoter Promoter Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
bch-gene-scbd-104793-3 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides Pseudomonas fluorescens - PSEFL 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) catalyses the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate which is the aromatic precursor of tocopherol and plastoquinone, which are essential to the photosynthetic transport chain and antioxidative systems. This reaction involves decarboxylation, substituent migration and aromatic oxygenation in a single catalytic cycle. To enhance the protein's tolerance against HPPD inhibitors a point mutation was introduced into the coding sequence such that a replacement of the amino acid glycine with a tryptophane at position 336 was introduced, as described by  Boudec et al. (2001)
bch-gene-scbd-103900-3 4ocs∆Mas2' promoter Promoter -
bch-gene-scbd-114711-2 5' Noncoding region of Yellow fever virus 5' Untranslated region Yellow fever virus - YFV 17D
bch-gene-scbd-100354-6 5' untranslated leader from chlorophyll a/b-binding protein Leader sequence Triticum aestivum - Wheat
bch-gene-scbd-103886-2 5' Untranslated Leader of AMV RNA4 Leader Alfalfa mosaic virus - Alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV
bch-gene-scbd-101901-3 5' untranslated leader of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein Leader Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
bch-gene-scbd-114699-2 5' Untranslated region from Potato Virus X 5' Untranslated Region Potato virus X - PVX
bch-gene-scbd-115355-3 5' untranslated region of α-globulin B Promoter Gossypium hirsutum - Cotton
bch-gene-scbd-104947-3 5'e1 Leader Leader Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-101026-4 5'e1 promoter Promoter Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-259059-1 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase G10 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Deinococcus radiodurans R1 - The protein catalyzes the transfer of the enolpyruvyl moiety of phosphoenolpyruvate to the 5-hydroxyl of shikimate-3-phosphate to produce enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. The protein is part of the shikimate biosynthetic pathway (aromatic amino acid biosynthesis) and does not bind the herbicide glyphosate with strong affinity (unlike endogenous EPSPS proteins in plants). Thus, when used in biotechnology, it can confer tolerance to glyphosate. Note: the sequence may have been modified from the aroA (epsps) gene sequence in Deinococcus radiodurans.
bch-gene-scbd-14979-7 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium The cp4 epsps gene was isolated from the CP4 strain of the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens . The enzyme encoded by the sequence is a version of EPSPS that is highly tolerant to inhibition by glyphosate and therefore leads to increased tolerance to glyphosate-containing herbicides. The following reaction is catalyzed by EPSPS: 3-phosphoshikimate + phosphoenolpyruvate = 5-O-(1-carboxyvinyl)-3-phosphoshikimate + phosphate Glyphosate specifically binds to and inactivates the enzyme EPSPS, which is part of an important plant biochemical pathway called the shikimate pathway. The shikimate pathway is involved in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, as well as other aromatic compounds. When plants are treated with glyphosate herbicides they cannot produce the aromatic amino acids that are essential to their survival and, therefore, die. LMOs containing the glyphosate-tolerant epsps gene allow farmers to use glyphosate-containing herbicides for weed control, which will kill the weeds but not the LMO.
bch-gene-scbd-106246-1 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Dickeya dadantii - DICDA Involved in EPSP biosynthesis. The aroA gene, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase , an enzyme of the common aromatic biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
bch-gene-scbd-105184-2 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids) Salmonella typhimurium - SALTM Involved in EPSP biosynthesis. The aroA gene, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase , an enzyme of the common aromatic biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan.
bch-gene-scbd-103857-3 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase leader Leader Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-45463-4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
bch-gene-scbd-101942-3 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Arthrobacter globiformis - Arthrobacter The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
bch-gene-scbd-45913-4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Escherichia coli - ECOLX Involved in EPSP biosynthesis. The aroA gene, which encodes 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase , an enzyme of the common aromatic biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
bch-gene-scbd-46333-8 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glyphosate) Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE The enzyme participates in biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The enzyme is a target for herbicides as these amino acids are only synthesized in plants and microorganisms. Glyphosate acts as a competitive inhibitor for phosphoenolpyruvate, as substrate of EPSPS, and is used as a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide.
bch-gene-scbd-103911-3 5126 anther-specific promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-110264-1 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 1 gene promoter Promoter Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-110266-2 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 1 gene terminator Terminator Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-110265-1 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Imidazolinone, Sulfonylurea) Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine.
bch-gene-scbd-110261-1 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 3 gene Promoter Promoter Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-110262-1 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 3 gene terminator Terminator Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-110260-1 Acetohydroxy acid synthase 3 gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Imidazolinone, Sulfonylurea) Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine.
bch-gene-scbd-104660-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase chloroplast transit peptide Transit signal Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-15164-9 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (Chimeric) Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Sulfonylurea) Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Native ALS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However S4-HrA is a chimeric gene derived from two different tobacco ALS genes that both encoded herbicide sensitive versions of ALS. Two resistance mutations were introduced into one of the ALS genes (Pro191Ala and Trp568Leu) via site directed mutagenesis. The DNA fragment containing the resistance mutations was then moved into the second ALS gene through a restriction enzyme fragment.
bch-gene-scbd-103932-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene promoter Promoter Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-104876-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Promoter Promoter Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-103933-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene terminator Terminator Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-103896-5 Acetohydroxy acid Synthase gene Terminator Terminator Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN
bch-gene-scbd-100390-7 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene terminator Terminator Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-104878-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Terminator Terminator Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-48073-8 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Imidazolinone, Sulfonylurea) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine. A common mutant form of the ahas gene was isolated from a herbicide-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana which differs from the wild type gene by only a single base pair. A "G" to "A" point mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in which the serine residue at position 653 is replaced by asparagine (S653N) Tests using the mutant isoform of the ahas gene showed that it confers tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides in plants. The ahas mutant isoform may, therefore, be used as a selectable marker in transgenic plants.
bch-gene-scbd-100268-6 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Sulfonylurea) Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN Acetohydroxy acid synthase (also known as acetolactate synthase)  is a key enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine The gm-hra gene has been modified by site directed mutagenesis (P183A and W560L) from the native soybean als gene and encodes a version of the enzyme that is tolerant to als inhibitors such as sulfonylurea herbicide. It also contains 15 additional nucleotides from the native als gene 5'UTR.
bch-gene-scbd-15177-7 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Chlorsulfuron, Sulfonylurea) Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Native ALS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However a naturally occurring mutation causes the production of an altered form of ALS (designated SuRB) that is insensitive to inhibition by sulfonylurea herbicides.
bch-gene-scbd-104877-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Sulfonylurea) Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA AHAS is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine. A common mutant form of the ahas gene  which differs from the wild type gene by two mutations W548L and S627I results in an enzyme that has tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides in plants. The ahas mutant isoform may, therefore, be used as a selectable marker in transgenic plants.
bch-gene-scbd-104672-4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase promoter Promoter Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-103926-4 Acetohydroxyacid synthase gene promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-48364-5 Acetohydroxyacid synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Sulfonylurea) Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE The acetolactate synthase enzyme (ALS) plays a key role in the biochemical pathways of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. The application of ALS-inhibiting herbicides blocks this synthesis pathway. Lack of the aforementioned amino acids interferes with protein synthesis, causing the plant to die off.This gene encodes a modified acetolactate synthase, which confers tolerance to several acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides such as, for example, sulfonylurea.
bch-gene-scbd-102613-4 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase large subunit Protein coding sequence | Homologous recombination Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC ACC catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is needed as a co-substrate in the fatty acids biosynthesis.
bch-gene-scbd-104517-2 Actin 2 promoter Promoter Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-115757-2 Actin 2 terminator Terminator Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-103761-2 Actin 5c gene Promotor Promoter Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
bch-gene-scbd-103909-3 Actin 8 Intron 1 Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-103908-4 Actin 8 Leader sequence Leader sequence Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-103907-3 Actin 8 promoter Promoter Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-110891-1 Acyl-(ACP) thioesterase type B gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower Catalysis of the reaction: RCO-SR' + H2O = RCOOH + HSR'. This reaction is the hydrolysis of a thiolester bond, an ester formed from a carboxylic acid and a thiol (i.e., RCO-SR'), such as that found in acetyl-coenzyme A.
bch-gene-scbd-110892-1 Acyl-(ACP) thioesterase type B promoter Promoter Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
bch-gene-scbd-110893-1 Acyl-(ACP) thioesterase type B terminator Terminator Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
bch-gene-scbd-103920-2 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase promoter Promoter Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
bch-gene-scbd-103921-2 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase terminator Terminator Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower
bch-gene-scbd-101362-5 Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Cuphea lanceolata - Cigar Flower Acyl-acyl carrier protein (Acyl-ACP) thioesterases (TE) hydrolyse the thioester ligation between the ACP (acyl carrier protein) and the synthesised acyl chain in fatty acid biosynthesis. Myristic and palmitic-[ACP] are substrates of the Cuphea lanceolata-derived enzyme which is encoded by the acyl-[ACP] thioesterase gene (ClFatB4). As a result of the formation of this enzyme the oil produced in the seeds of the genetically modified (GM) plants contains myristic acid (C14:0), and increased levels of palmitic acid (C16:0). Myristic and palmitic acids, the fatty acids formed by this enzyme occur naturally in some plant oils used for human consumption (e.g. coconut oil). There is currently no evidence pointing at a toxic effect from either the enzyme or the new metabolic product. When used in modern biotechnology the introduced acyl-[ACP] thiosterase is expected to catalyse a reaction similar to that of corresponding enzymes occuring naturally in the seeds of other (wild and cultivated) plant species.
bch-gene-scbd-115338-4 Acyl-homoserine lactonase CHB37 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria),Resistance to Gram-negative bacteria Bacillus cereus CHB37 - The enzyme hydrolyzes N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) molecules secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Erwinia mallotivora . AHLs have been determined to be the principle signalling molecule involved in quorum sensing (cell-to-cell communication) in Gram-negative bacteria and are essential for survival and regulation of virulence genes. Bacteria lacking AHLs are non-pathogenic.
bch-gene-scbd-115339-2 Acyl-homoserine lactonase SP24 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria),Resistance to Gram-negative bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The enzyme hydrolyzes N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) molecules secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Erwinia mallotivora . AHLs have been determined to be the principle signalling molecule involved in quorum sensing (cell-to-cell communication) in Gram-negative bacteria and are essential for survival and regulation of virulence genes. Bacteria lacking AHLs are non-pathogenic.
bch-gene-scbd-115649-3 Acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids),Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) (Omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. DHA)) Pavlova lutheri - Acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase creates a double bond at the fourth position from the carboxyl end of docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3), converting it into docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3). The enzyme can additionally catalyze the conversion of 22:4n-6 into 22:5n-6 .
bch-gene-scbd-110931-1 Acyl-lipid ∆12-desaturase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Fungi),Tolerance to abiotic stress (Cold / Heat) Synechocystis sp. - Cyanobacteria, SYNYX Acyl-lipid desaturases introduce double bonds into fatty acid moieties that have been esterified to glycerolipids, which are located in the endoplasmic reticulum, the chloroplast membrane in plant cells and the thylakoid membrane in cyanobacterial cells. This type desaturase is the most efficient regulator of the unsaturation level of membrane lipids in response to temperature change In transgenic plants acyl-lipid ∆12-desaturase expression increases their tolerance to prolonged exposure of low positive temperatures and ensures resistance to fungal pathogens and wounding.
bch-gene-scbd-111572-1 Adenylate kinase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Yield) Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU Adenylate kinases catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphates (ATP) to adenosine monophosphates (AMP) to yield adenosine diphosphates (ADP). Therefore the enzyme is essential for homeostasis of adenosine phosphates - maintaining the energetic equilibrium of the organism.
bch-gene-scbd-106420-1 ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase gene promoter Promoter Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
bch-gene-scbd-109218-1 ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase gene terminator Terminator Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-115846-2 Albino and pale green 6 target sequence Transit signal Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-104337-2 Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1, intron 1 Intron Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-103867-2 Alcohol dehydrogenase 1, intron 2 Intron Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-103625-3 Alcohol dehydrogenase 1, intron 6 Intron Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-110414-1 Alcohol dehydrogenase 5′UTR Enhancer Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-104870-2 Alcohol dehydrogenase gene 5'UTR Leader Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-111202-1 Alcohol dehydrogenase I promoter Promoter Aspergillus nidulans - EMEND
bch-gene-scbd-115247-2 Alcohol dehydrogenase intron Intron Drosophila melanogaster - Common Fruit Fly
bch-gene-scbd-106441-1 Alcohol oxidase 1 gene promoter Promoter Pichia pastoris - Yeast, PICPA
bch-gene-scbd-106442-1 Alcohol oxidase 1 gene terminator Terminator Pichia pastoris - Yeast, PICPA
bch-gene-scbd-111201-1 alcR transactivator gene Protein coding sequence | Transcription regulation Aspergillus nidulans - EMEND The alcR gene of Aspergillus nidulans encodes a protein with a zinc finger motif, the AlcR activator protein/ AlcR transactivator. In the presence of ethanol, AlcR specifically binds DNA motifs of the ethanol regulon of A.nidulans, inducing the expression of the genes of this regulon. This ethanol pathway is a highly inducible gene system, the so-called alc system, responsible for the utilization of ethanol as sole source of carbon in A.nidulans.
bch-gene-scbd-111593-1 Alkaline phosphatase transit peptide Transit signal Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-116048-1 All-stop codon sequence Terminator -
bch-gene-scbd-108877-1 Alpha Tubulin Gene promoter Promoter Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-108880-1 Alpha Tubulin Gene terminator Terminator Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA
bch-gene-scbd-112606-1 Alpha-amylase 3 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Carbohydrates) Manihot esculenta - Cassava, Brazilian arrowroot, Yuca, Manioc, Mandioca, MANES The plastidial alpha amylase gene (AMY3) is involved in the release of branched malto‐olicosaccharides from the starch granule.
bch-gene-scbd-104334-2 Alpha-amylase gene promoter Promoter Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
bch-gene-scbd-109359-2 Alpha-amylase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Carbohydrates) Bacillus licheniformis - BACLI Alpha–amylase helps to degrade starch by hydrolysing the alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds of oligo- and polysaccharides. Besides in bacteria, it is also found in fungi, higher plants and animals. Amylase is commonly used in the fermentation and baking industry. The transferred alpha–amylase from B. licheniformis is characterised by high heat resistance and a broad pH optimum.
bch-gene-scbd-111543-1 Alpha-amylase signal peptide Transit signal Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
bch-gene-scbd-105057-3 Alpha-amylase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Reproduction, Male sterility) Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE Alpha-amylases belong to a family of glycosyl-hydrolases catalyzing hydrolysis of (1-4)-α-Dglucosidic linkages in polysaccharide molecules, such as starch.
bch-gene-scbd-106425-1 Alpha-glucan water dikinase R1 gene promoter Promoter Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
bch-gene-scbd-46091-2 Alpha-hordothionine gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Fungi) Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU Thionins are a class of small(45– 47 amino acids), anti fungal, highly basic, cysteine-rich proteins. An in vitro type-1 α-HTH treatment of Neurospora crassa hyphae resulted in increased calcium ion uptake and permeabilization of the fungal membrane, leading to rupture.
bch-gene-scbd-111203-2 Amino acid permease 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids) Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU AAP1 in involved in the long-distance transport of amino acids from leaves to tubers. A reduced expression of CS-aap1-SOLTU in the source leaves of transgenic potatoes leads to a reduction of the amino acid content in the tubers.
bch-gene-scbd-48368-4 Amino acid permease 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids) Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean The Vfaap1 gene from Vicia faba encodes an amino acid permease. Amino acid permeases transport amino acids from the plant vascular tissue into the symplasts of plant cells. They are differentially expressed according to plant development and tissue, and exhibit a range of specificity patterns for amino acids. In the donor organism, Vicia faba, the Vfaa1 gene is expressed predominantly in the storage parenchyma cells of the cotyledons in developing seeds, particularly in early development. The strongest expression of Vfaap1 precedes the beginning of the expression of storage protein genes. VfAAP1 mediates the transport of a range of amino acids (mainly cysteine, arginine, glutamine, serine, leucine, methionine, histidine, glycine and threonine) with particular emphasis on cysteine.
bch-gene-scbd-103860-1 Amino acid permease 1 Terminator Terminator Vicia faba - Broad Bean, Tick Bean, Windsor Bean, Horse Bean, Pigeon Bean, Field Bean
bch-gene-scbd-111295-1 Amino acid permease 2 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids) Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU AAP2 is thought to be involved in the long-distance transport of amino acids from leaves to tubers.
bch-gene-scbd-104887-2 Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Ripening) Carica papaya - Papaya, Pawpaw, Papaw, CARPA ACO2, encoding for the ACC oxidase enzyme, plays an important role in ethylene biosynthesis pathway. It oxidises 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate in the presence of ascorbate and oxygen to produce ethylene gas which has a role in the fruit ripening process.
bch-gene-scbd-14967-2 Aminoglycoside 3 phosphotransferase II Protein coding sequence | Resistance to antibiotics (Kanamycin),Selectable marker genes and reporter genes Escherichia coli - ECOLX The aphII gene confers resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. Typically used as a marker gene.
bch-gene-scbd-14966-7 amy797E alpha amylase Protein coding sequence | Thermostable alpha-amylase,Use in industrial applications (Biofuel production) Thermococcales spp. - Thermococcus The amy797E gene encodes a thermostable alpha-amylase. Alpha-amylases catalyse the hydrolysis of starch by cleaving the internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of starch into dextrins, maltose and glucose (saccharification). Splitting starch into sugar is the first step in producing bioethanol from plants.  Plants like maize naturally contain their own amylases. They get destroyed, however, when maize is subjected to high temperatures for ethanol production. Typically, supplemental amylase preparations must be added. Heat stable amalyse makes this step unneccessary.
bch-gene-scbd-114712-2 Anchored core protein C Protein coding sequence Yellow fever virus - YFV 17D Anchored protein C (ancC) binds the host cell membrane and gathers the viral RNA genome to form the core of the mature viral particles. During viral entry into the host cell, the protein may induce genome penetration into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, ancC can migrate to the nucleus to modulate host functions. AncC (nucleotide position 119..481) also contains protein C (nucleotide position 119..421), which is produced upon further processing by the host cell and interferes with host Dicer to prevent RNA interference.
bch-gene-scbd-105427-1 Anthocyanidin synthase gene promoter Promoter Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
bch-gene-scbd-105424-1 Anthocyanidin synthase gene terminator Terminator Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
bch-gene-scbd-110487-1 Anthocyanin 3-aromatic acyltransferase gene promoter Promoter Perilla frutescens - Perilla, Beefsteak mint, Chinese basil, Shiso-zoku, PERFR
bch-gene-scbd-110411-1 Anthocyanin 3-aromatic acyltransferase gene terminator Terminator Perilla frutescens - Perilla, Beefsteak mint, Chinese basil, Shiso-zoku, PERFR
bch-gene-scbd-43794-3 Anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Pigmentation / Coloration) Torenia sp. - Torenia hybrid, Wishbone flowers, Blue Wings, TOREN Anthocyanin 5-acyltransferase is an enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that alters the production of a type of anthocyanin called delphinidin.
bch-gene-scbd-105436-1 Anthocyanin-3',5'-methyltransferase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin), Pigmentation / Coloration) Torenia sp. - Torenia hybrid, Wishbone flowers, Blue Wings, TOREN Anthocyanin-3',5'-methyltransferase (AMT) methylates delphinidin-3-glucoside to produce petunidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside.
bch-gene-scbd-104722-2 Antifreeze Polypeptide Promoter Promoter Zoarces americanus - Ocean pout, Poodler, Mother-of-eels, Muttonfish, North-Atlantic ocean pout, ZOAAM
bch-gene-scbd-104724-2 Antifreeze Polypeptide Terminator Terminator Oncorhynchus tshawytscha - Chinook Salmon, King Salmon, ONCTS
bch-gene-scbd-48365-2 Apyrase-gene Protein coding sequence | Other growth, development and product quality Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU Apyrases are enzymes that transform NTP (nucleoside triphosphates) via NDP to NMP without triggering an endergonic reaction in the process. These enzymes have been identified in the tissues of animals, plants (among others in Arabidopsis thaliana, legumes and potatoes) and fungi and apparently have predominantly regulatory functions. Double knockout mutations of both apyrase genes from A. thaliana inhibit pollen germination and give rise to male sterile plants. Apyrases play a role in the formation of nodules in leguminous plants, and are also thought to be involved in phosphate uptake. Regulation of transporters that, amongst other things, facilitate the transport of xenobiotics out of the plant cell has been demonstrated for plant apyrases. The blocking of apyrase by specific inhibitors increases the sensitivity of the plants to different herbicides, as well as the concentration of the applied herbicides in the plants.  Over-expression of the apyrase psNTP9 from Pisum sativum in A. thaliana increases the resistance of the plants to herbicides and phytohormones. Apyrase activity in the potato tubers is very high and is probably localised in the area of the cell wall. Together with other enzymes that influence the ATP/ADP/AMP ratio, apyrase activity is suspected to have a regulatory effect on starch biosynthesis in the potato tubers.
bch-gene-scbd-114695-4 Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiania tabacum chimeric Rubisco activase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Growth rate, Yield),Increased photosynthetic rate,Tolerance to abiotic stress (Cold / Heat) Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubsico) activase (RCase) facilitates activation of and the maintenance of Rubisco activity by using ATP hydrolysis to release tightly bound sugar phosphates from the catalytic sites of Rubisco. Tobacco ( N. tabacum ) RCase is known for being heat stable, thus the chimeric protein was created to confer thermostability to the protein. A domain consisting of residues 267–334 in tobacco RCase were replaced by the corresponding Arabidopsis domain. Previously, overexpression of this chimeric protein promoted better growth and higher rates of photosynthesis under high temperatures.
bch-gene-scbd-115644-1 Arcelin-5 promoter Promoter Phaseolus vulgaris - String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean, PHAVU
bch-gene-scbd-115646-1 Arcelin-5 terminator Terminator Phaseolus vulgaris - String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean, PHAVU
bch-gene-scbd-115648-1 Argonaute 4 intron Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-104941-3 ArsR binding site Binding Site Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-104939-2 ArsR gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress Escherichia coli - ECOLX The gene arsR stems from the E. coli-specific plasmid R773 and encodes for a transcriptional regulator with binding sites for arsenic compounds. It is a repressor protein that binds to its promoter in the absence of arsenic compounds therefore repressing the expression of downstream genes. Arsenic compounds that are taken up by bacterial cells form a complex with ArsR, thereby allosterically preventing the association of ArsR with the promoter. Thus, the transcription of downstream genes is induced.
bch-gene-scbd-104940-2 ArsR Promoter Promoter Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-104805-2 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides Delftia acidovorans - DELAC The AAD-12 protein is an enzyme with an alpha ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity which results in metabolic inactivation of the herbicides of the aryloxyalkanoate family.
bch-gene-scbd-104812-3 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides,Tolerance to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,Tolerance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate Sphingobium herbicidovorans - SPHHE The aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD-1) enzyme is able to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionates (AOPP) herbicides, in an alpha.-ketoglutarate-dependent, enantiospecific manner.
bch-gene-scbd-106421-1 Asparagine synthetase-1 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids) Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU Asparagine synthetase is an enzyme that generates asparagine from aspartate.
bch-gene-scbd-115261-4 At1g01170 intron Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-115631-1 At1g62290 locus intron Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-115347-2 At1g65090 intron Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-115270-3 At5g63190 intron Intron Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-115117-2 ATM protein kinase Protein coding sequence | Impaired DNA repair mechanisms,Sensitivity to DNA damaging agents Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to serine or threonine residues and is activated upon perception of genotoxic stresses (e.g. ionizing radiation). ATM primarily responds to double stranded DNA breaks. The kinase phosphorylates histone variant H2AX to form H2AXS139ph at double strand breaks. The protein becomes activated in response to stress-induced damage in somatic cells and DNA damage during meiosis. ATM has also been implicated in cellular responses to telomere dysfunction. ATM works synergistically with RUG3 during the DNA damage response.
bch-gene-scbd-114702-1 ATPase terminator Terminator Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato, SOLLC
bch-gene-scbd-115116-2 ATR serine/threonine kinase Protein coding sequence | Impaired DNA repair,Sensitivity to DNA damaging agents Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR (ATR) catalyzes the addition of a phosphorate to serine or threonine residues. The protein plays a central role in cell-cycle regulation at the G2 phase checkpoint in response to single stranded DNA, DNA damage, and/or a replication block, but is not required for G2-arrest. This protein functions by transmitting DNA damage signals to downstream effectors of cell-cycle progression. Research has suggested that ATR may phosphorylate histone variant H2AX to form H2AXS139ph at sites of DNA damage to regulate the DNA damage response mechanism. ATR is also required for the basal expression of RNR1 (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit) and for effective immune responses that involve the activation of DNA damage responses, as well as acting with telomerase to maintain telomeric DNA tracts. However, ATR is not required for telomere length homeostasis.
bch-gene-scbd-108282-1 Atrial natriuretic factor coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) Homo sapiens - HUMAN Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a powerful vasodilator, and a protein hormone secreted by heart muscle cells. It is involved in the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, potassium and fat (adipose tissue). It is released by muscle cells in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart (atrial myocytes) in response to high blood volume. ANP acts to reduce the water, sodium and adipose loads on the circulatory system, thereby reducing blood pressure.
bch-gene-scbd-103358-4 AttB λ attachment site Excision-integration site Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-105608-1 avhppd-03 gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides Avena sativa - Oat, AVESA The gene avhppd-03 decodes the enzyme AvHPPD-03 which catalyses the formation of homogentisic acid, the aromatic precursor of plastoquinone and vitamin E biosynthesis . It has a low binding afinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits HHPD. Expression of AvHPPD-03 in plant cells confers tolerance to HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione.
bch-gene-scbd-105599-1 B-BOX32 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Photoperiod response) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH BBX32 functions downstream of multiple photoreceptors as a modulator of light responses and functions in light sensitive hypocotyl growth.
bch-gene-scbd-100273-4 B33 gene promotor Promoter Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
bch-gene-scbd-116056-2 Banana streak virus (Acuminata Yunnan) promoter Promoter Banana streak virus Acuminata Yunnan - BSV(AY)
bch-gene-scbd-114547-2 Barley Phytase Promoter Promoter Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
bch-gene-scbd-114549-2 Barley Phytase Terminator Terminator Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
bch-gene-scbd-114546-2 Barley Phytase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Protein and amino acids, Vitamins) Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU Phytases are phosphatases that hydrolyze of phytic acid, an important phosphorous storage compound in plant seeds. Their activity thus ensures the bioavailability of phosphorous during germination, grain development, and maturation.
bch-gene-scbd-104825-2 Barnase 3' Untranslated region Terminator Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAM
bch-gene-scbd-14973-6 Barnase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Reproduction, Male sterility) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAM Barnase is a bacterial protein that has ribonuclease activity. It is lethal to the cell when expressed without its inhibitor barstar. The inhibitor binds to and occludes the ribonuclease active site, preventing barnase from damaging the cell's RNA after it has been synthesized but before it has been secreted. Barnase catalyzes hydrolysis at diribonucleotide GpN sites. Cleavage occurs in two steps using a general acid-base mechanism: a cyclic intermediate is formed during the first transesterification step, which is then hydrolysed to release the cleaved RNA. When synthesised by plants it causes male sterility by producing a ribonuclease enzyme (RNAse) that interferes with RNA production in specific cells of the pollen sac, thus disrupting their normal cell functioning and preventing the development of pollen which lead to male sterility.
bch-gene-scbd-101409-2 Barstar gene terminator Terminator Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAM
bch-gene-scbd-14974-7 Barstar Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Fertility restoration) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens - BACAM The barstar gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens encodes a specific ribonuclease inhibitor (barstar enzyme) expressed only in the tapetum cells of the pollen sac during anther development. The barstar enzyme specifically inhibits barnase RNAse. Together, the barnase RNAse and the barstar form a very stable one-to-one complex, in which the RNAse is inactivated. As a result, when pollen from the restorer line is crossed to the male sterile line, the resultant progeny express the RNAse inhibitor in the tapetum cells of the anthers allowing hybrid plants to develop normal anthers and restore fertility. Also, the barstar gene may be used to prevent the barnase RNAse from disrupting the development of bacteria in which the introduced DNA was prepared during the transformation process.
bch-gene-scbd-108898-1 Beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Carbohydrates) - This thermostable Beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase is the chimeric product resulting from the recombination of two Beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus macerans . The resulting protein depolymerises glucans in the aleurone layer and the endosperm during caryopsis germination.
bch-gene-scbd-111746-1 Beta-1,3-glucanase 2 gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Fungi) Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU Beta-1,3-glucanases catalyse the hydrolysis of beta-1,3-glucan, which is a linear homopolymer of beta-1,3 glycosidically bound glucose residues. Together with chitinases, the beta-1,3-glucanase is part of the plant defence system to protect itself from pathogenic fungal infections.
bch-gene-scbd-260481-1 Beta-2 tubulin promoter Promoter Anopheles gambiae - African malaria mosquito, Mosquito, Malaria mosquito, ANOGA
bch-gene-scbd-260483-1 Beta-2 tubulin terminator Terminator Anopheles gambiae - African malaria mosquito, Mosquito, Malaria mosquito, ANOGA
bch-gene-scbd-105217-2 Beta-actin gene promoter Promoter Gallus gallus - Chicken, CHICK
bch-gene-scbd-108044-1 Beta-casein gene promoter Promoter Capra aegagrus hircus - Domestic goat, Goat, CAPHI
bch-gene-scbd-45875-7 Beta-galactosidase gene Protein coding sequence | Selectable marker genes and reporter genes Escherichia coli - ECOLX β-galactosidase is a hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides. Substrates of different β-galactosidases include ganglioside GM1, lactosylceramides, lactose, and various glycoproteins. It is commonly used in molecular biology as a reporter marker to monitor gene expression. It also exhibits a phenomenon called α-complementation which forms the basis for the blue/white screening of recombinant clones. This enzyme can be split in two peptides, LacZα and LacZΩ, neither of which is active by itself but when both are present together, spontaneously reassemble into a functional enzyme.
bch-gene-scbd-108700-1 Beta-glucosidase gene promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-46004-7 Beta-glucuronidase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Selectable marker genes and reporter genes Escherichia coli - ECOLX The uidA gene expresses beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Expression of this enzyme allows detection in the laboratory of transformed cells by using a simple colour change assay.   Typically used as a reporter gene or visual marker gene.
bch-gene-scbd-108284-1 Beta-Glucuronidase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Selectable marker genes and reporter genes Streptococcus pneumoniae - Pneumococcus, STREE Glucuronidase is a member of the glycosidase family of enzymes that catalyze breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Expression of this enzyme allows detection in the laboratory of transformed cells by using a simple colour change assay.   Typically used as a reporter gene or visual marker gene.
bch-gene-scbd-103614-2 Beta-kafirin promoter Promoter Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
bch-gene-scbd-103615-3 Beta-kafirin Terminator Terminator Sorghum bicolor - Sorghum
bch-gene-scbd-110894-1 Beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA In the biosynthesis of fatty acids, the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthases catalyze chain elongation by the addition of two-carbon units derived from malonyl-ACP to an acyl group bound to either ACP or CoA.
bch-gene-scbd-14975-5 Beta-lactamase gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to antibiotics (Ampicillin) Escherichia coli - ECOLX Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by some bacteria and are responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem) (Cephalosporins are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase). These antibiotics have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam. The lactamase enzyme breaks that ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties
bch-gene-scbd-114963-1 Beta-lactamase promoter Promoter Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-114964-1 Beta-lactamase terminator Terminator Escherichia coli - ECOLX
bch-gene-scbd-115356-1 bleomycin binding protein Protein coding sequence | Resistance to antibiotics,Resistance to bleomycin Escherichia coli - ECOLX The protein has a high-binding affinity for bleomycin, thus has the ability to sequester bleomycin and confer resistance.
bch-gene-scbd-110730-1 BNYVV coat protein Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Viruses, Beet necrotic yellow virus (BNYV)) Beet necrotic yellow vein virus - BNYVV RNA2 of the Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV) carries the information for the viral coat protein, an important domain for encapsidation, vector transmissibility and cell-to-cell transmission.
bch-gene-scbd-115580-1 Bovine growth hormone terminator Terminator Bos taurus - Cow, Cattle, Bull, Auroch, Oxen, Bullocks
bch-gene-scbd-48366-2 Branching Enzyme 1 Protein coding sequence | altered carbohydrate composition: increased amylopectin content Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU The be1 and be2 genes code for starch branching enzymes which catalyse the splitting of alpha-1,4-glucans and the subsequent formation of alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds between glucan chains during amylopectin synthesis. The isozymes BE1 and BE2 differ with regard to their amino acid sequences, their expression patter (BE1 is expressed mainly in potato tubers, BE2 mainly in leaves) and their specificity (e.g. size of the transferred carbohydrate chains).
bch-gene-scbd-48453-2 Branching Enzyme 2 Protein coding sequence | altered carbohydrate composition: increased amylopectin content Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU The be1 and be2 genes code for starch branching enzymes which catalyse the splitting of alpha-1,4-glucans and the subsequent formation of alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds between glucan chains during amylopectin synthesis. The isozymes BE1 and BE2 differ with regard to their amino acid sequences, their expression patter (BE1 is expressed mainly in potato tubers, BE2 mainly in leaves) and their specificity (e.g. size of the transferred carbohydrate chains).
bch-gene-scbd-105056-3 Brittle-1 gene Transit Peptide Transit signal Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-111931-2 Bromelain inhibitor gene promoter Promoter Ananas comosus - Pineapple, ANACO
bch-gene-scbd-14976-5 Bromoxynil-specific nitrilase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Bromoxynil) Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae - Klebsiella, KLEPO A Klebsiella  ozaenae  nitrilase converts the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4 hydroxybenzo-nitrile) to 3,6-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid to adegraded non-herbicidal product.
bch-gene-scbd-114700-2 BSMV 5' untranslated region Leader Barley stripe mosaic virus - Barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus; Barley false stripe virus; Barley mosaic virus; Barley mild stripe virus; Oat stripe mosaic virus
bch-gene-scbd-103554-2 c-myc-tag Transit signal Homo sapiens - HUMAN
bch-gene-scbd-103892-1 C5 left flanking arm Plasmid Vector Canarypox virus - CNPV
bch-gene-scbd-103891-1 C5 right flanking arm Plasmid Vector Canarypox virus - CNPV
bch-gene-scbd-101413-3 CA55 gene promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-105596-1 Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lignin) Medicago sativa - Alfalfa, Lucerne, MEDSV Alfalfa CCOMT catalyzes O-methylation of caffeoyl and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA, with preference for caffeoyl CoA.
bch-gene-scbd-101405-2 Calcium-dependent protein kinase promoter Promoter Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-105197-2 CaMV 35S Enhancer Leader Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
bch-gene-scbd-101504-4 CaMV 35S promoter plus four repeats of activating sequence Promoter Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
bch-gene-scbd-100287-7 CaMV 35S promoter Promoter Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
bch-gene-scbd-100290-6 CaMV 35S terminator Terminator Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
bch-gene-scbd-100366-6 CaMV Enhanced 35S promoter Promoter Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
bch-gene-scbd-115619-1 Capsid protein Double-stranded RNA African cassava mosaic virus - ACMV
bch-gene-scbd-114274-2 Catalase 1 intron Intron Ricinus communis - Castor bean
bch-gene-scbd-115350-1 Cathepsin D inhibitor terminator Terminator Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU
bch-gene-scbd-105019-2 cctra intron Intron Ceratitis capitata - Mediterranean fruit fly, CERCA
bch-gene-scbd-102013-3 Cdc25 gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production Schizosaccharomyces pombe - Fission yeast Cdc25 proteins control entry into and progression through various phases of the cell cycle, including mitosis and S ("Synthesis") phase. They act through  dephosphorylation of CDK/cyclin complex.
bch-gene-scbd-104788-2 Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus promoter Promoter Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus - CYLCV
bch-gene-scbd-103771-1 Chalcone synthase gene promoter Promoter Antirrhinum majus - Common Snapdragon, Snapdragon
bch-gene-scbd-105670-1 Chalcone synthase gene promoter Promoter Dianthus caryophyllus - Carnation, DIACA
bch-gene-scbd-105669-1 Chalcone synthase gene promoter Promoter Rosa hybrida - Rose, ROSHC
bch-gene-scbd-109212-1 Chimeric wheat gliadin Double-stranded RNA -
bch-gene-scbd-108904-1 Chitinase 33 transit peptide Transit signal Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU
bch-gene-scbd-106332-1 Chitinase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Fungi) Beta vulgaris - Common beet, Sugarbeet, BETMA Chitinases catalyse the hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly a component of fungal cell walls and the exoskeleton of arthropods, organisms which include many important pathogens and pests, into a linear homopolymer of p-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues.
bch-gene-scbd-100382-2 Chloramphenicol-acetyl-transferase Protein coding sequence | Resistance to antibiotics (Chloramphenicol) Escherichia coli - ECOLX Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) is a bacterial enzyme that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria.
bch-gene-scbd-114687-1 Chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 promoter Promoter Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-100365-6 Chloroplast transit peptide 2 Transit signal Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH
bch-gene-scbd-103899-3 Chloroplast Transit Peptide 4 Transit signal Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
bch-gene-scbd-109363-1 Chloroplast transit peptide Transit signal Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - CHLRE
bch-gene-scbd-106247-1 Chloroplast Transit Peptide Transit signal Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-110305-1 Chloroplast transit peptide Transit signal Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-102896-4 Cholera Toxin Protein coding sequence | Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) (Vaccines) Vibrio cholerae - An exotoxin, produced by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio eltor, thats leeds to the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. The cholera toxin is a member of the AB family of toxins. The function of the non-toxic B subunit is to assemble into a ring-shaped, homologous pentamer and to adhere to mem-brane receptors on the intestinal epithelial cell surface (GM1 gangliosides). The pathogenic effect stems from the A subunit. This is split into two domains, an anchor domain A2 and a toxic domain A1. The anchor domain binds the toxic A1 domain to the B subunit. Through a series of further intermediate activation steps, the A1 domain ultimately causes a massive secretion of chloride ions in the gut lumen, causing diarrhoea. It follows that the A1 subunit is toxic, but the B subunit is non-toxic.
bch-gene-scbd-116037-1 Choline dehydrogenase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Growth rate, Ripening, Yield),Tolerance to abiotic stress (Drought, Salinity) Escherichia coli - ECOLX The protein is involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine by oxidizing choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Glycine betaine maintains cell water potential by osmotic adjustment. Plant transformed with the choline dehydrogenase gene had increased salt tolerance.
bch-gene-scbd-116039-1 Choline dehydrogenase Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Ripening, Yield),Tolerance to abiotic stress (Drought, Salinity) Sinorhizobium meliloti - RHIML The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. Glycine betaine maintains cell water potential by osmotic adjustment.
bch-gene-scbd-259200-1 Chymosin Protein coding sequence | Use in industrial applications Bos taurus - Cow, Cattle, Bull, Auroch, Oxen, Bullocks The enzyme hydrolyzes casein to paracasein. It clots milk by cleaving a single 104-Ser-Phe-|-Met-Ala-107 bond in kappa-chain of casein (similar activity to pepsin A). The protein is produced in the mucosa of the abomasum (fourth stomach) of young (unweaned or suckling) cattle. The enzyme is used in cheese manufacturing to coagulate milk due to its high milk-clotting and low proteolytic activities.
bch-gene-scbd-258879-1 Cin4-1 element Transposon Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-102122-4 Cinnamoyl coenzymeA reductase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lignin) Populus tremula x Populus alba - Gray Poplar Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyzes the penultimate step in monolignol biosynthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of feruloyl-CoA to coniferaldehyde and is considered the first enzyme in the monolignol-specific branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Because downregulation of the CCR gene in annual model plants significantly reduced lignin content, downregulating CCR in a woody perennial was an interesting potential avenue to improve wood quality for pulping.
bch-gene-scbd-115133-1 Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase Double-stranded RNA Populus tremula x Populus alba - Gray Poplar
bch-gene-scbd-111325-1 Citrate synthase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Growth rate, Yield) Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Yeast, YEASX The citrate synthases catalyses the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by converting acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citric acid.
bch-gene-scbd-15027-3 CMV coat protein Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Viruses, Mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)) Cucumber mosaic virus - CMV The cp gene from CMV encodes the coat protein (CP) gene from Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Through a process related to viral cross-protection, transgenic lines with this gene exhibit resistance to infection and subsequent disease caused by CMV.
bch-gene-scbd-114749-2 CMV Early Enhancer Enhancer Human betaherpesvirus 5 - Human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, HHV-5
bch-gene-scbd-114698-2 CMV1 5' Untranslated region 5' Untranslated region Cucumber mosaic virus - CMV
bch-gene-scbd-107876-1 CoA-transferase alpha 2 subunit gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria) Rhodococcus equi - RHOE1 The gene ipdA2 (REQ_00850) is an paralog of idpA of Rhodococcus equi but is localized outside of the cholesterol catabolic gene cluster on the bacterial chromosome. Probably it is the alpha subunit of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. The biological function is not elucidated yet but it was shown that the gene product IpdA2 (GenBank accession CBH46238) acts redundantly to IdpA in the cholesterol catabolism that is important for pathogenicity of R. equi.
bch-gene-scbd-107872-1 CoA-transferase alpha subunit gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria) Rhodococcus equi - RHOE1 The gene ipdA (REQ_07170) is an ortholog of rv3551 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and likewise localized in the cholesterol catabolic gene cluster of its bacterial chromosome of Rhodococcus equi. The encoded protein IpdA (GenBank accession CBH46834) carries the PF01144 signature motif of heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase as well as the COG1788 signature of AtoD, the alpha subunit acetoacetyl-CoA transferase of E. coli. It is thought that IpdA is an alpha subunit of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase involved in steroid catabolism, more specific in methylhexahydroindanone propionate degradation. It was shown that the cholesterol catabolism is important for pathogenicity of R. equi.
bch-gene-scbd-107875-2 CoA-transferase beta 2 subunit gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria) Rhodococcus equi - RHOE1 The gene ipdB2 (REQ_00860) is an paralog of idpB of Rhodococcus equi but is localized outside of the cholesterol catabolic gene cluster on the bacterial chromosome. Probably it is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. The biological function is not elucidated yet but it was shown that the gene product IpdB2 (GenBank accession CBH46239) acts redundantly to IdpB in the cholesterol catabolism that is important for pathogenicity of R. equi.
bch-gene-scbd-107873-1 CoA-transferase beta subunit gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria) Rhodococcus equi - RHOE1 The gene ipdB (REQ_07160) is an ortholog of rv3552 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and likewise localized in the cholesterol catabolic gene cluster of its bacterial chromosome of Rhodococcus equi. The encoded protein IpdB (GenBank accession CBH46833) carries a COG2057 signature of AtoA, the beta subunit acetoacetyl-CoA transferase of E. coli. It is thought that IpdB is an beta subunit of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase involved in steroid catabolism, more specific in methylhexahydroindanone propionate degradation. It was shown that the cholesterol catabolism is important for pathogenicity of R. equi.
bch-gene-scbd-115108-2 Coat protein Double-stranded RNA Cassava brown streak virus - Cassava Brown Streak Virus, CBSV
bch-gene-scbd-115110-2 Coat Protein Double-stranded RNA Ugandan cassava brown streak virus - UCBSV
bch-gene-scbd-108285-2 Coding sequence of scFv4715 antibody Protein coding sequence | Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) (Antibodies and antigens) Mus musculus - Mouse, House mouse, MOUSE Binds to Streptococcus gordonii coat protein. This bacteria is the causal agent of dental plaque/cavity. The synthetic antibody (scFv4715) consist of a heavy (Vh) and light (VL) chain of the variable regions of the immunoglobulin-G, joined by a linker peptide.
bch-gene-scbd-103065-7 Cold shock protein gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress (Cold / Heat, Drought) Bacillus subtilis - Bacillus, BACIU CspB is a type of stress-inducible protein that might be able to protect B. subtilis cells from damage caused by ice crystal formation during freezing.
bch-gene-scbd-115620-1 Common region Double-stranded RNA African cassava mosaic virus - ACMV
bch-gene-scbd-114991-2 Conlinin1 promoter Promoter Linum usitatissimum - Flax, Flax, Linseed, LINUS
bch-gene-scbd-114990-2 Conlinin1 terminator Terminator Linum usitatissimum - Flax, Flax, Linseed, LINUS
bch-gene-scbd-114987-2 Conlinin2 promoter Promoter Linum usitatissimum - Flax, Flax, Linseed, LINUS
bch-gene-scbd-114986-2 Conlinin2 terminator Terminator Linum usitatissimum - Flax, Flax, Linseed, LINUS
bch-gene-scbd-111871-2 COS site Excision-integration site Escherichia virus Lambda - Lambda phage, LAMBD
bch-gene-scbd-104319-1 CP Peptide Protein coding sequence | Use in industrial applications (Bioremediation) - A syntetic metallothionenine that binds heavy metals when expressed in plant tissues.
bch-gene-scbd-103918-3 Cruciferin A gene promoter Promoter Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-103919-1 Cruciferin A gene terminator Terminator Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
bch-gene-scbd-115761-1 Cry14Ab1 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Nematodes) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU CRY14Ab1 is a crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis related to the other crystal proteins CRY1A, CRY3A and CRY4A. Structurally, the protein contains three domains. The protein has been demonstrated to have nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans , Panagrellus redivivus , Nippostrongylus brasiliensis , Distolabrellus veechi , Meloidogyne spp. (root knot nematodes), Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode), Hopiolaimus spp. (Lance nematode), Pratylenchus spp. and Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode). The protein is thought to act in the intestine of nematodes. During feeding assays with C. elegans , the symptoms included constriction and thinning of intestinal cells, shrinkage of the gut, vacuolization and a degenerative appearance. Due to its relation to other crystal proteins, it is thought that CRY14A may also have insecticidal properties as well.
bch-gene-scbd-43771-9 Cry1A.105 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU Cry1A.105 is a full-length, insecticidal protein consisting of 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight (MW) of 133 kDa. It is a chimeric protein that consists of domains I and II from Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac1, domain III from Cry1F, and the C-terminal domain from Cry1Ac. Cry1A.105 was designed using domain exchange strategy to achieve high levels of activity against target lepidopteran insect pests. The domains I and II of Cry1A.105 are 100% identical to the respective domains of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac. The domain III of Cry1A.105 is 99% identical to the domain III of Cry1F. The C-terminal region of Cry1A.105 is 100% identical to that of Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab and Cry1F are all well known and well characterized insecticidal proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).The overall amino acid sequence identity of Cry1A.105 to Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab, and Cry1F is 93.6%, 90.0%, and 76.7%, respectively
bch-gene-scbd-14985-12 Cry1Ab Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry1Ab gene codes for a delta-endotoxin, commonly known as "Bt-toxin", which confers resistance to the plant to lepidoptera larvae such as the European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis ), the southwestern corn borer ( Diatraea grandiosella ), pink borer ( Sesamia cretica ), Spruce Budworm, Tent caterpillar, Gypsy moth, Diamondback moth, Cabbage looper, Tobacco budworm, and Cabbage worm.
bch-gene-scbd-103109-5 Cry1Ab/Ac Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry1Ab-Ac gene was constructed by combining 1 – 286 amino acid residues of Domain-I, 287 – 459 are of Domain-II, conforming to Cry1Ab of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD1. Sequence 460-608 amino acid residues are of Domain III, conforming to Cry1Ac of B. thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki HD73. The Cry1Ab/Ac synthetic gene is codon optimized and truncated (1,824 bp) encoding insecticidal protein (608 amino acids) of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A. Insecticidal protein against certain lepidoptera species.
bch-gene-scbd-259040-1 Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.), European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj is a fusion protein consisting of the two crystal proteins Cry1Ab and Cry2Aj and a connecting peptide. The fusion protein is expected to have an increased (10 times) insecticidal activity, a wider insecticidal spectrum compared to the individual crystal proteins and is expected to slow pest resistance to crystal proteins. The fusion protein is expected to be active against: cotton bollworms, beet armyworms and corn borer, as well as Chilo suppressalis of rice, corn and cotton, among other Lepidoptera pests.
bch-gene-scbd-14986-6 Cry1Ac Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry1Ac gene codes for a Bt-toxin, which confers resistance to lepidopteran pests of cotton, such as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens).
bch-gene-scbd-258889-1 Cry1B.868 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The synthetic Cry1B.868 protein comprises domain 1 (D1) and domain 2 from Cry1Be2 (M1 to I503), domain 3 from Cry1Ca1 (N468 to N633), and the C-terminal protoxin moiety (domains 4 to 7) from Cry1Ab3 (E626 to E1155). The protein binds different receptors compared to other commonly available Bt proteins, such as Cry1F, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab and Vip3A, but continues to demonstrate a pore-forming mode of action. Thus, the protein causes mortality and developmental delay in susceptible Lepidoptera insects, such as fall armyworm. In assays using Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm colonies, the protein overcame the insect's Bt-resistance.
bch-gene-scbd-258890-1 Cry1Da_7 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.), European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The synthetic Cry1Da_7 protein is a chimeric protein consisting of the Cry1Da1 core toxin domain with three aa substitutions in the active core (S282V, Y316S, I368P) and the Cry1Ab3 protoxin domain. The protein binds different receptors compared to other commonly available Bt proteins, such as Cry1F, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab and Vip3A, but continues to demonstrate a pore-forming mode of action. Thus, the protein causes mortality and developmental delay in susceptible Lepidoptera insects, such as fall armyworm and corn earworms. In assays using Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm colonies, the protein overcame the insect's Bt-resistance.
bch-gene-scbd-14987-8 Cry1F Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry1F gene codes for codes for a Bt-toxin, which protects the plant against the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and other lepidopterans such as the pink borer (Sesamia spp.), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella).
bch-gene-scbd-14988-7 Cry2Ab2 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry2A(b) gene encodes codes for a Bt-toxin, which confers resistance to lepidopteran pests of cotton, such as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), and soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens).
bch-gene-scbd-101895-8 Cry2Ae Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa spp.), Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU Cry2Ae protein as expressed in cotton has 631 amino acids. The deduced molecular weight is 71 kDa. The Cry2Ae protein is effective in controlling lepidopteran plant feeding larvae such as cotton bollworm larvae, tobacco budworm larvae and fall armyworm larvae which are common pests of cotton.
bch-gene-scbd-14994-9 Cry34Ab1 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Coleoptera (beetles)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry34Ab1 gene codes for a 14kDa Bt-toxin Cry34Ab1. When expressed with Cry35Ab1 it results in the mortality of Coleopteran insects, such as western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi), and mexican corn rootworm (D. virgifera zeae)  upon oral ingestion.
bch-gene-scbd-14995-8 Cry35Ab1 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Coleoptera (beetles)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry35Ab1 gene codes for a 44kDa Bt-toxin Cry35Ab1. When expressed with Cry34Ab1 it results in the mortality of Coleopteran insects, such as western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi), and mexican corn rootworm (D. virgifera zeae)  upon oral ingestion.
bch-gene-scbd-14989-5 Cry3A Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Coleoptera (beetles)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry3A gene codes for a Bt-Toxin, which confers resistance to western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica longicornis barberi) and other related coleopteran species.
bch-gene-scbd-14993-5 Cry3Bb1 Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Coleoptera (beetles)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The cry3Bb1 gene, isolated from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subspecies kumamotoensis, produces the insect control protein Cry3Bb1, a delta-endotoxin. The Cry3Bb1 protein provides protection against the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica vigifera) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi).
bch-gene-scbd-14996-8 Cry9C Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The Cry9C protein, when expressed, protects the plants against feeding damage of larvae of the lepidopteran insect European corn borer  by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the brush border midgut epithelium of susceptible insect species.
bch-gene-scbd-109361-1 Cry9E Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Insects, Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)) Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt, Bacillus, BACTU The Cry9E protein, when expressed, protects the plants against feeding damage of larvae of the lepidopteran insect European corn borer  by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the brush border midgut epithelium of susceptible insect species.
bch-gene-scbd-102150-3 Cryj gene Protein coding sequence | Vaccine against pollen allergies Cryptomeria japonica - Japanese cedar Cryj is a major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen. Cryj genes are being used to develop vaccines for treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis/ allergies.
bch-gene-scbd-101900-6 CsVMV promoter Promoter Cassava vein mosaic virus - Cassava vein mosaic virus, CVMV, CsVMV
bch-gene-scbd-103096-2 Cyanophycin synthetase Protein coding sequence | Use in industrial applications Thermosynechococcus elongatus - Cyanobacteria Cyanophycin synthetase catalyzes the polymerisation of aspartate monomers to a polyaspartate-chain. The aspartate monomers are covalently linked by their beta-carboxy- and alpha-amino groups. Additional arginine side chains are observed. This biopolymer is produced by a variety of cyaonobacteria such as Thermosynecchococcus elongates as a storage molecule for nitrogen.
bch-gene-scbd-104770-2 Cyclobutylpyrimidine dimer photolyase Gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA Involved in repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage. Catalyzes the light-dependent monomerization (300-600 nm) of cyclobutylpyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which are formed between adjacent bases on the same DNA strand upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Required for plant survival in the presence of UV-B light. Protein can therefore be used in conferring tolerance to UV-B induced abiotic stress caused by the formation of Cyclobutylpyrimidine dimers. CPDs are neutralised by CPD photolyase thus reducing the effect of UV-B radiation damage
bch-gene-scbd-258934-1 Cysteine protease transit peptide Transit signal Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-104593-1 Cytochrome b5 Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Antioxidants, Flavonoids (e.g. anthocyanin), Pigmentation / Coloration) Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY Cyt b5 protein acts as an electron donor to the Cyt P450 enzyme and is required for full activity of the Cyt P450 enzyme Flavinoid 3' 5' hydroxylase in vivo and the generation of purple/ blue flower colours.
bch-gene-scbd-108701-2 Cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress (Drought) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH Cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX) catalyze the irreversible degradation of the cytokinins isopentenyladenine, zeatin, and their ribosides in a single enzymatic step by oxidative side chain cleavage.
bch-gene-scbd-108709-1 Cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress (Drought) Hordeum vulgare - Barley, HORVU Cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX) catalyze the irreversible degradation of the cytokinins isopentenyladenine, zeatin, and their ribosides in a single enzymatic step by oxidative side chain cleavage.
bch-gene-scbd-115697-1 Cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 signal peptide Transit signal Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
bch-gene-scbd-108707-1 Cytokinin dehydrogenase 2 gene Protein coding sequence | Tolerance to abiotic stress (Drought) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH Cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX) catalyze the irreversible degradation of the cytokinins isopentenyladenine, zeatin, and their ribosides in a single enzymatic step by oxidative side chain cleavage.
bch-gene-scbd-111451-1 Cytosolic starch phosphorylase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in physiology and/or production (Yield) Solanum tuberosum - Potato, SOLTU Phosphorylases catalyse the reversible phosphorolysis of terminal glucose units of alpha-1,4-glucans. Depending on the concentration of inorganic phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate, the enzyme can both synthesise and degrade glucans.
bch-gene-scbd-102614-3 D1 thylakoid membrane protein (psbA) gene terminator Terminator Nicotiana tabacum - Tobacco, TOBAC
bch-gene-scbd-103772-2 D8 gene terminator Terminator Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
bch-gene-scbd-110906-1 Dc3 promoter Promoter Daucus carota subsp. sativus - Carrot, DAUCA
bch-gene-scbd-108927-1 Defensin coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria, Fungi) Homo sapiens - HUMAN Defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif.
bch-gene-scbd-108261-3 Defensin gene coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Bacteria, Fungi) Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale cress, Mouse-ear cress, Arabidopsis, ARATH Plant defensins exhibit antimicrobial activities, invitro, particularly against filamentous fungi and are thus believed to contribute to the defence arsenal of plants directed against microbial phytopahtogens.
bch-gene-scbd-111875-2 Defensin-like protein 1 gene Protein coding sequence | Resistance to diseases and pests (Fungi) Dahlia merckii - Bedding dahlia, DAHME AMP1 is a cysteine-rich polypeptide of 50 amino acids with a calculated mass of approximately 5 kD. It is a plant defensin that inhibits fungal growth. The protein is expressed in the seeds and protects the developing seedling from pathogenic fungi.
bch-gene-scbd-109219-1 Dehydroascorbate reductase coding sequence Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Vitamins) Oryza sativa - Rice, ORYSA Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) reduces dehydroascorbate (DHA) to ascorbate with glutathione (GSH) as the electron donor.
bch-gene-scbd-113305-1 delta 12-desaturase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Lachancea kluyveri - Yeast, LACKL Facilitates the synthesis of hexadecadienoic acid as well as linoleic acid.
bch-gene-scbd-113299-2 delta 15-desaturase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Pichia pastoris - Yeast, PICPA Desaturases catalyze the introduction of double bonds between the carboxylic end of a molecule and a preexisting double bond to introduce further unsaturation into existing polyunsaturated fatty acids or make polyunsaturated fatty acids de novo in mammals deprived of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
bch-gene-scbd-113304-1 delta 4-desaturase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Rebecca salina - Microalga, REBSA Delta-4 desaturase is the final enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from docosapentaenoic acid.
bch-gene-scbd-113298-1 delta 5-desaturase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Rebecca salina - Microalga, REBSA Fatty acid desaturase that introduces a cis double bond at the 5-position in 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporated in a glycerolipid that contain a Delta8 double bond.
bch-gene-scbd-113300-1 delta 5-elongase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Pyramimonas cordata - Microalga, PYRCR Catalyses the conversion of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosapentaenoic acid.
bch-gene-scbd-113296-2 delta 6-desaturase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Micromonas pusilla - Picoplanktonic green alga, MICPS Delta 6 desaturase (FADS6), a membrane-bound desaturase which converts linoleic acid to γ-linolenic acid or α-linolenic acid to stearidonic acid by introducing a double bond between carbons 6 and 7 from the carboxyl end of the substrate.
bch-gene-scbd-113297-1 delta 6-elongase gene Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Pyramimonas cordata - Microalga, PYRCR delta 6-elongase converts γ-linolenic acid to dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DHGLA) or stearidonic acid to eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA).
bch-gene-scbd-100267-2 delta(12)-fatty acid dehydrogenase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Glycine max - Soybean, Soya bean, Soya, SOYBN The gm-fad2-1 is a fragment of the omega-6 desaturase gene 1 (FAD2-1) from Glycine max (soybean) that corresponds to approximately 40% of the middle portion of the coding region of FAD2-1 (597 bp). gm-fad2-1 itself does not code for a functional protein, but transcription of this gene fragment transgenic soybean seeds acts to suppress transcription of endogenous omega-6 desaturase, resulting in the high oleic phenotype.
bch-gene-scbd-112726-1 delta(12)-fatty acid desaturase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids) Carthamus tinctorius - Safflower, CARTI FAD2 genes introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on phosphatidylcholine and convert it to linoleic acid.
bch-gene-scbd-115637-1 Delta-12 desaturase Protein coding sequence | Changes in quality and/or metabolite content (Lipid and fatty acids),Production of medical or pharmaceutical compounds (human or animal) (Omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. DHA)) Phytophthora sojae - Delta-12 desaturase catalyzes the formation of a double bond at the 12th position from the carboxy end