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Online discussions

The discussions are scheduled to be held from 9 to 20 September 2019.

More information will be made available soon.

Parties, other Governments, relevant organizations and indigenous peoples and local communities may nominate participants through an official letter to the Executive Secretary. See Notification 2019-031 for further information.

Forum 1: Focused discussion on experiences in considering socio-economic aspects in decision taking on LMOs

Several submissions contained case studies or descriptions of decisions on living modified organisms in which socio-economic aspects had been considered. These descriptions were provided in the submissions from: China, France, Nigeria and Norway.

Furthermore, in the submission from New Zealand, reference was made to a large number of decisions in which socio-economic considerations had been taken into consideration. From among these decisions, New Zealand has kindly identified a selection for further consideration by the online forum.

The submissions by China, France, Nigeria and Norway, as well as the selected decisions to which reference was made in the submission from New Zealand, are made available for ease of reference in the links below.


France FR France EN



New Zealand (placeholder)

Participants are invited to comment and add views to review the information submitted.

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Forum 2: Focused discussion on literature and reports cited

A number of submissions contained references to literature or reports concerning applications of socio-economic considerations, some of which address methodological aspects. The submissions from the European Union, Mexico, the United States of America and Third World Network contained such references.

For ease of reference, links to the materials are provided below:

European Union:

Report to the European Parliament and the Council on socio-economic implications of GMO cultivation on the basis of Member States contributions (COM 2011)

Framework for the socio-economic analysis of the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops (ESEB 2015)

Framework for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of Bt maize cultivation (ESEB 2016).


The Mexican submission indicates that the National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change (INECC) has published the following studies, which, although not directly related to living modified organisms, are aligned with art. 26 of the Cartagena Protocol:

Metodología de valoración económica del dalo al medio ambiente por contingencias del sector minero (2016)

Costos y beneficios de la agricultura de conservación y la ganadería planificada en el marco de las medidas de las Contribuciones Nacionalmente Determinadas (2016)

Beneficios y costos de la participación en los prograas de desarrollo forestal relacionados con las medidas de las Contribuciones Nacionalmente Determinadas (2016)

Valoración económica de servicios ecosistémicos y propuesta de costo de oportunidad para un Pago por Servicios Ambientales de las cuencas abastecedoras a Puerto Vallarta (2018).

Actualización y robustecimiento del Índice de Presión Económica a la Deforestación (2018)

United States of America

Annual briefs from the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) containing information on adoption and analyses of impacts of the use of genetically engineered crops

Global impact of biotech crops: socio-economic and environmental effects 1996–2015. (2017)

Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. (2012). PNAS

Third World Network

Catacora-Vargas et al. (2018). Socio-economic Research on Genetically Modified Crops: A Study of the Literature. Agriculture and Human Values 35:489–51

Wickson et al. (2017). Addressing Socio-Economic and Ethical Considerations in Biotechnology Governance: The Potential of a New Politics of Care. Food Ethics 1(2): 193-199

Fischer et al. (2015). Social Impacts of GM Crops in Agriculture: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability 7(7), 8598-8620.

Binimelis and Wickson (2018). The Troubled Relationship Between GMOs and Beekeeping: An Exploration of Socioeconomic Impacts in Spain and Uruguay. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 43(5)

Participants are invited to comment and add views to review the information submitted.

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Forum 3: General discussion

The submissions received contain a variety of information that may be of relevance to these discussions. Some of the submissions discussed to date, in addition to providing case studies and links to relevant materials, may also raise other aspects that may be of general interest to this forum.

Participants are invited to provide any comments and views on any information submitted. Participants are reminded that all submissions are available here.

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