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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2012-02-06 15:23 UTC (fred.wassenaar@rivm.nl)
Date of last update
2012-05-25 18:50 UTC (manoela.miranda@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2012-06-01 19:09 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
A baseline study of the distribution and morphology of Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L. in the Netherlands
Sheila H. Luijten, Tom J. de Jong
Author’s contact information
Institute of Biology Leiden, University Leiden, The Netherlands
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
In Europe, the cultivation of genetically (living) modified (GM) Brassica napus is prohibited, but the import of GM B. napus seeds is permitted. Until March 2009 no GM B. napus was imported as reported by the consent holders. Since March 2009 several GM B. napus events are authorised for import. However, given this short period, no official records for seed imports into the Netherlands are available. and thus whether import of GM B. napus has occurred during the last 12 months is unclear. However, the bulk of the seed imports of B. napus are from within Europe. It is known that Brassica napus can become established outside cropped fields in the ruderal landscape and is able to cross with a number of other crucifers belonging to the Dutch flora, in particular Brassica rapa. These characteristics are taken into account in the environmental risk analysis for genetically modified B. napus. Data on the occurrence of B. napus in the Netherlands might aid in the refinement of the risk analyis for GM B. napus.
The existing impression that B. napus is widespread in this country is presently under discussion, because of the confusion surrounding identification of B. napus and its closest relative, B. rapa. As a result, the current distribution of the species in the Netherlands is poorly understood. In this study we examine the morphological differences between B. rapa and B. napus and the presence of B. napus in the ruderal landscape to establish a baseline for its distribution. Against this background, recommendations are given how these results may be incorporated into the monitoring plans of (un-)expected adverse environmental effects as the results of the commercial releases of GM B. napus as required by EU directive 2001/18/EC.
Thematic areas
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
  • 6. Monitoring of Living Modified Organisms Released into the Environment
Information on Organisms or LMOs
Organism(s) identification
Brassica napus - Turnip, Rapeseed, Canola Plant, Oilseed Rape, Rape, BRANA
Brassica rapa - Canola plant
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Report / Review / Fact sheet / Notes
Publisher and its location
COGEM (Netherlands Commission on Genetic Modification), Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Copyright holder: the authors; available for educational, non-profit and official use
Access to the resource