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Record ID
Date of creation
2012-05-15 13:37 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of last update
2012-05-25 18:52 UTC (manoela.miranda@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2012-06-01 19:24 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
General Recommendations for Soil Ecotoxicological Tests Suitable for The Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants
Joerg Roembke, Stephan Ja¨nsch, Matthias Meier, Angelika Hilbeck, Hanka Teichmann, and Beatrix Tappeser
Author’s contact information
Joerg Roembke
Email: j-roembke@ect.de

ECT Oekotoxikologie, Bo¨ttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flo¨rsheim, Germany
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Before a genetically modified plant (GMP) can be placed on the market in the European  Union (EU), an environmental risk assessment has to be conducted according to EU Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council. However, no harmonized concept for ecotoxicological testing is available today that considers the characteristics of GMPs as a whole. In fact, to date, mainly ecotoxicological tests originally developed and standardized for pesticides are used for this purpose. Frequently in these tests, not the whole GMP is tested but only specific transgene products (mainly toxins). In this contribution, ecotoxicological methods developed for the testing of pesticides are evaluated for whether they are suitable for risk assessment of GMPs as well. In total, 105 test methods covering a wide range of terrestrial invertebrates, microbes, and plants (laboratory, semifield, and field levels) were assessed. Only 7 of them had already been used with GMPs, and in about 20 studies the existing tests methods were modified, mostly in a way such that nonstandard species were used. In the laboratory, few earthworm and nontarget arthropod (NTA) species as well as collembolans and isopods were tested, and, in the field, only the litter-bag test was used. Clearly, more species than these few standard organisms currently in use have to be selected for testing purposes. A more detailed analysis of GMP tests with soil invertebrates published in the literature revealed that some of the relevant GMP exposure routes, such as via bulk soil, soil porewater, and litter from GMPs, are well covered. However, studies addressing either consumption of GMPs themselves or secondary exposure after GMPs have been taken up by invertebrates that feed on living or dead GMPs are underrepresented
Thematic areas
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
  • 6. Monitoring of Living Modified Organisms Released into the Environment
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Article (journal / magazine / newspaper)
DOI: 10.1897/IEAM.2009-043.1
© 2009 SETAC
14 page PDF
ntegrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Keywords and any other relevant information
Keywords: Test methods, Invertebrates, Microbes, Selection criteria, Test strategy

Citation: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management - Volume 6, Number 2-pp. 287-300