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Date of creation
2012-08-02 14:21 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
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2012-08-02 14:21 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
Tree transgenesis: recent developments
Matthias Fladung, Dietrich Ewald
Author’s contact information
Dr. Matthias Fladung

für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft
Institut für Forstgenetik und
Sieker Landstr. 2
22927 Großhansdorf, Germany
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Table of Contents:

Part A Transgenic Trees in the World

1 Field Trials with Transgenic Trees - State of the Art and Developments: MARCEL ROBISCHON
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Transgenic Trees in Test Tube and Field Trials
1.3 Transgenic Trees for Improvement of Forestry
  1.3.1 Northern America
  1.3.2 Europe
  1.3.3 Latin America
  1.3.4 South Africa
  1.3.5 Australasia New Zealand Japan Vietnam China
1.4 Fruit Trees
  1.4.1 North America
  1.4.2 Europe
  1.4.3 The Papaya Story
  1.4.4 New Applications of Transgenic Trees
1.5 Conclusions

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Production of Insect Resistant Transgenic Forest Trees in China
2.3 Transgenic Trees Tolerant to Environmental Stresses
2.4 Sterile Transgenic Forest Trees
2.5 Further Transformation Work on Forest Trees
2.6 Field Tests of Transgenic Trees
2.7 Commercial Use of Transgenic Forest Trees
2.8 Rules and Regulations
2.9 Conclusions

3 Modification of Perennial Fruit Trees: XIUXIN DENG AND YANXIN DUAN
3.1 Introduction
3.2 General Overview of Transformed Fruit Trees
3.3 Target Genes Introduced into Fruit Trees
  3.3.1 Abiotic-stress Tolerance
  3.3.2 Shortening of the Juvenile Phase
  3.3.3 Disease Resistance
  3.3.4 Insect Resistance
  3.3.5 Rootstock Improvement
  3.3.6 Fruit Improvement
3.4 Progress in Genetic Transformation of Fruit Trees
  3.4.1 Apple
  3.4.2 Apricot
  3.4.3 Cherry
  3.4.4 Chestnut
  3.4.5 Citrus
  3.4.6 Grapevine
  3.4.7 Kiwifruit
  3.4.8 Papaya
  3.4.9 Peach
  3.4.10 Pear
  3.4.11 Persimmon
  3.4.12 Plum
  3.4.13 Walnut
  3.4.14 Others
3.5 Conclusions

4 Genetic Transformation of Some Tropical Trees, Shrubs, and Tree-like Plants: SHUCHISHWETA V. KENDURKAR, VAISHALI B. NAIK, AND RAJANI S. NADGAUDA
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Genetic Transformation Studies
  4.2.1 Banana, Musa sp.
  4.2.2 Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L.
  4.2.3 Coffee, Coffea sp.
  4.2.4 Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus sp.
  4.2.5 Oil Palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
  4.2.6 Rubber Tree, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.
4.3 Conclusions

Part B Wood and other Traits

5 Environmental Aspects of Lignin Modified Trees: HELY HÄGGMAN, KAROLIINA NIEMI, HEIDI TIIMONEN, TIINA YLIOJA,
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Lignin and Current Knowledge of Lignin Biosynthesis
5.3 Lignin Modification in Genetically Engineered Trees
5.4 Environmental Aspects of Processing Lignin Modified Trees in the Pulp and Paper Industry
5.5 Ecological Interactions of Lignin Modified Trees
  5.5.1 Insect Herbivores
  5.5.2 Mycorrhizas
5.6 Conclusions

6 Modification of Cellulose in Wood: MATTHIAS FLADUNG
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Modification of Lignin (and Cellulose) Content via "Lignin-enzymes"
6.3 Modification of Cellulose Content via "Cellulose Genes"
  6.3.1 Cell Wall Formation and Cellulose Synthesis
  6.3.2 Cellulose Degradation
6.4 Modification of Cellulose Fibre via "Hormone Genes"
6.5 Conclusions

7 Heavy Metal Resistance and Phytoremediation with Transgenic Trees: ANDREAS D PEUKE AND HEINZ RENNENBERG
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Problem: Soil Contamination
7.3 Some Specialists Can Deal with High Levels of Heavy Metals: Hyperaccumulators
7.4 Dealing with High Concentration of Heavy Metals - Homeostasis, Tolerance, Detoxification
7.5 The Impact of Glutathione in Stress Resistance
7.6 Molecular Engineering to Improve the Performance of Plants in Phytoremediation
7.7 The Use of Trees for Phytoremediation
7.8 Conclusions

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nitrogen Uptake, Assimilation and Related Pathways
  8.2.1 Nitrogen Uptake
  8.2.2 Nitrogen Assimilation
  8.2.3 Carbon Flux for Amino Acid Biosynthesis
8.3 Relevance of N Metabolism in Trees
8.4 Genetic Manipulation of Nitrogen Metabolism
  8.4.1 Studies in Model and Crop Plants
  8.4.2 Production of Transgenic Trees and Consequences of Gene Manipulation Enhanced Photosynthetic Metabolism and  Vegetative Growth Increased N Use Efficiency Increased Resistance to Stress Increased Nitrogen Reserves The Importance of C/N Balance
8.5 Conclusions

Part C Biotic and Abiotic Resistances 

9 Virus Resistance Breeding in Fruit Trees: MARGIT LAIMER
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Importance of Viral Diseases
  9.2.1 Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) (Closteroviridae)
  9.2.2 Grapevine Viruses
  9.2.3 Prunus Viruses
  9.2.4 Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) (Potyviridae)
  9.2.5 Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV)(Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus)
9.3 Conventional Breeding Efforts for Virus Resistance in Trees
9.4 Classical Cross Protection
9.5 Pathogen Derived Resistance (PDR)
  9.5.1 Transformation, Selection and Regeneration Approaches
  9.5.2 Description of Construct Design
  9.5.3 Survey of Virus Resistance in Transgenic Fruit Trees
9.6 Conclusions

10 The Use of Genetic Transformation Procedures to Study the Defence and Disease Resistance Traits of Trees: TREVOR M FENNING
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Ecological Background
10.3 The Constitutive and Induced Defenses of Plants
  10.3.1 Constitutive Defenses
  10.3.2 Induced Direct Defenses
  10.3.3 Induced Indirect Defenses
10.4 Wound Perception and Signaling
10.5 The Elm Leaf Beetle System
10.6 Bark Beetles and the Resin Defenses of Conifers
10.7 Other Pest Syndromes of Conifers
10.8 Genes and Pathways of Interest
  10.8.1 The Biochemistry and Genetics of Plant Volatile Emission
  10.8.2 The Biosynthesis of Terpenoids in Plants
  10.8.3 Further Approaches for Identifying Other Genes of Interest
10.9 Advances in Understanding Tree Diseases from Introduced Novel Defensive Traits
10.10 Studies with Exotic Diseases
10.11 Conclusions

11 Fungal and Bacterial Resistance in Transgenic Trees: WILLIAM A POWELL, CHARLES A MAYNARD, BRIAN BOYLE, AND ARMAND SÉGUIN
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Review of Current Approaches
  11.2.1 Chitinases
  11.2.2 Antimicrobial Peptides Short Amphipathic Cationic Peptides Cystein-rich Peptides Attacins
  11.2.3 Oxalate Oxidase
  11.2.4 RNA Interference (RNAi or Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing [PTGS])
  11.2.5 Plantibodies
  11.2.6 Other Resistance-enhancing Transgenes
11.3 Next Steps
11.4 Conclusions

12 Genetically Modified Trees Expressing Genes for Insect Pest Resistance: ALMA BALESTRAZZI, GIANNI ALLEGRO, AND MASSIMO CONFALONIERI
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Insecticidal δ-Endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their Role in the Control of Insect Pests
  12.2.1 Transfer of Bt Genes into Forest Tree Species
  12.2.2 Transgenic Fruit Trees Expressing Bt Genes
12.3 Plant Proteinase Inhibitors: A Useful Tool for Plant Defence Against Insect Predation
  12.3.1 Transfer of PI Genes into Forest and Fruit Trees
12.4 Other Strategies to Obtain Insect Resistance in Forest and Fruit Trees
12.5 Environmental Risk and Deployment Strategies for Genetically Engineered Insect-resistant Trees
  12.5.1 Field Trials with Insect-resistant GM Trees
  12.5.2 Toxicity and Allergenicity of Proteins Encoded by Genes for Insect Pest Resistance
  12.5.3 Development of Target Pests Resistant to GM Trees
  12.5.4 Emergence of New Pests Following GM Trees Deployment
12.6 Deleterious Effects on the Ecosystems
12.7 Horizontal Transfer of the Transgenes to Other Organisms
12.8 Conclusions

13 Towards Genetic Engineering for Drought Tolerance in Trees: ANDREA POLLE, ARIE ALTMAN, AND XIANGNING JIANG
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Water as a Central Molecule in Plant Physiology
13.3 Water as a Limiting Resource
13.4 Signalling Cascades and Metabolic Stress Adaptation from the Cellular to the Organismic Perspective
  13.4.1 ABA, MAPKK, Lipases, and Transcription Factors are Involved in Transmission of the Stress Signal
  13.4.2 Drought Stress Requires Osmotic Adjustment
  13.4.3 The Cells' Weapons to Prevent Drought-induced Injury
13.5 Profiling of Gene Expression and Protein Patterns: New Tools for Improving Drought Tolerance in Trees?
13.6 Conclusions

Part D Biosafety Issues

14 Genome Instability in Woody Plants Derived from Genetic Engineering: HANS HOENICKA AND MATTHIAS FLADUNG
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Genetic Engineering of Woody Plants
14.3 Genome Instability in Plants
  14.3.1 Genome Instability Caused by Viruses and Repetitive Elements in Plants
  14.3.2 Polyploidy
14.4 Genome Instability in Transgenic Plants
  14.4.1 Somaclonal Variation
  14.4.2 Molecular Marker Analysis of Genome Instability in Transgenic Plants
  14.4.3 Transgene Silencing
  14.4.4 Structure of T-DNA Insertion Locus
  14.4.5 Recombination Between Transgenic Sequences, Viruses and Repetitive Elements
14.5 Transgene Stability in Woody Plants
  14.5.1 Instability of Transgene Expression Populus spp. Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) Spruce (Picea mariana, P. glauca, P. abies) Pinus radiata Apple (Malus spp.)
  14.5.2 Recombination Between Transgenic and Virus DNA/RNA Grapevine (Vitis spp. L) Prunus spp.
14.6 Conclusions

15 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Transgenic Aspen to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: UWE NEHLS, CHI ZHANG, MIKA TARKKA, RÜDIGER HAMPP, AND MATTHIAS FLADUNG
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Horizontal Gene Transfer Between Plants and Microorganisms
15.3 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Horizontal Gene Transfer
  15.3.1 What Makes Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Interesting with Respect to Horizontal Gene Transfer?
  15.3.2 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Trees to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi under Laboratory Conditions
  15.3.3 Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer from Aspen to Ectomycorrhizal Fungi under Field Conditions Experimental Site and Planting Conditions of Aspen Sampling and Analysis of Ectomycorrhizal Biodiversity Investigation of Horizontal Gene Transfer
15.4 Conclusions

16 Transgenic Temperate Fruit Tree Rootstocks: SERGEY V DOLGOV AND M-VIOLA HANKE
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Overview of Genetic Transformation in Rootstocks
  16.2.1 Malus Rootstocks
  16.2.2 Pyrus and Prunus Rootstocks
  16.2.3 Factors Affecting the Transformation Efficiency
16.3 Methodology of Rootstock Transformation and Results Obtained
16.4 Field Tests of Transgenic Rootstocks
16.5 Conclusions

Thematic areas
  • Scientific and technical issues
    • Risk assessment
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Book / Book chapter
ISBN-10 3-540-32198-5; DOI 10.1007/3-540-32199-3
Publisher and its location
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006
Original Document
Keywords and any other relevant information
Keywords: environmental risk assessment - gene technology - transgenic trees
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Link to the resource(s)