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Information Resource
Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2009-03-13 16:58 UTC (andrew.bowers@cbd.int)
Date of last update
2012-05-09 20:20 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2012-05-09 20:20 UTC (dina.abdelhakim@cbd.int)

General Information
Problem Formulation and Options Assessment Handbook
Kirsten C. Nelson and Michael J. Banker
Organization(s) involved in the publication of this resource
Dr. Kristen C. Nelson
Department of Forest Resources; Department of Fisheries, Wldlife, and Conservation Biology
University of Minnesota
115 Green Hall
1530 Cleveland Ave. No.
St. Paul, MN
United States of America
Phone:+1 612 625 5212
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
The Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) provides a framework for identifying the crucial societal needs that could be satisfied by introducing a GM crop into an agricultural system, and comparing the GM crop to other possible alternatives for meeting that critical societal need. To this end, a PFOA relies upon being transparent, inclusive of all appropriate stakeholders, and rationally informed by the best available science. To make this process tool accessible to interested users, we have developed the PFOA Handbook.

The purpose of the handbook is to:

      • Introduce and explain the substance, theory, and practice of the PFOA methodology
      • Provide guidance about the integration of a PFOA into a country's environmental risk assessment (ERA) procedures for genetically modified organisms (GMO)
      • Examine considerations, techniques, and resources that can assist in designing, implementing, and conducting a country-specific PFOA

The handbook was designed to accommodate and account for users around the world, recognizing that each country has particular contexts (e.g. ecosystems, laws and regulations, political infrastructures, culture) and faces distinct challenges when trying to customize a PFOA process. The primary audiences are the government agencies and personnel responsible for conducting ERAs of GMOs within a particular country. This includes those already committed to using the PFOA methodology in their ERAs and those who are considering doing so. The secondary audience is anyone who would participate in a PFOA process or seek to include it in the governance of GMOs.
Thematic areas
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Manual / Tutorial / FAQ / Dictionary
Publisher and its location
GMO Era Project
© Kristen C. Nelson / International Project on GMO Environmental Risk Assessment Methodologies
252-page handbook