Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) | BCH-ORGA-SCBD-116142 | Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House


Organism (ORGA)

last updated: 28 Jun 2021
Organism information
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Kingdom Pararnavirae
Phylum Artverviricota
Class Revtraviricetes
Order Ortervirales
Family Retroviridae
Genus Lentivirus
Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1
  • HIV-1
Additional classification
Characteristics related to biosafety
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 is an enveloped, retrovirus that infects humans. The virus is the causal agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). CD4+ cells, such as helper T cells, monocytes and macrophages, are the target cell-type for the virus. The infection leads to low levels of CD4+ cells and loss of cell-mediated immunity.

The infection cycle:
1) HIV glycoprotein120 (gp120) binds to CD4
2) HIV gp41 binds a chemokine co-receptor (generally CCR5 or CXCR4) and fuses with the host cell membrane
3) Nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm
4) Core proteins are removed releasing viral genome (single stranded RNA) and enzymes
5) Viral reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA copy of the genome
6) Ribonuclease H degrades the RNA copy of the genome and a second round of DNA synthesis takes place (yielding double stranded DNA)
7) The viral dsDNA is then integrated into the host genome by viral integrase (provirus; latency period begins)
8) The provirus is activated and transcription begins
9) Viral RNA is exported to the cytoplasm
10) Host ribosomes synthesize viral precursor proteins, which will be cleaved by viral protease
11) Viral ssRNA and proteins assemble beneath host cellular membrane, which has gp120 and gp41 inserted
12) Virus particles bud out of the cell and complete maturation (often causing cell lysis)
  • Research
  • Vaccine
Additional Information
The HIV genome consists of two identical single-stranded RNA molecules that are enclosed in the core of the virus particle. The viral particle is approximately 100 nm in size.
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Record type Field Record(s)
Genetic element Donor organism(s) 3