Avian orthoavulavirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus, NDV) | BCH-ORGA-SCBD-48965 | Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House


Organism (ORGA)

published: 19 Jun 2009 last updated: 29 Jun 2020
Organism information
Avian orthoavulavirus 1
Kingdom Orthornavirae
Phylum Negarnaviricota
Class Monjiviricetes
Order Mononegavirales
Family Paramyxoviridae
Genus Orthoavulavirus
Species Avian orthoavulavirus 1
  • Newcastle disease virus
  • NDV
Additional classification
V ((-)ssRNA)
Characteristics related to biosafety
First found in Newcastle, United Kingdom in 1926, then by Burnet in 1943 in Australia.
NDV is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges of infected birds. The disease is transmitted through infected birds' droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes. NDV spreads rapidly among birds kept in confinement, such as commercially raised chickens.

NDV affects the respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems. Symptoms are very variable depending on the strain of virus, species of bird, concurrent disease and preexisting immunity. The incubation period for the disease ranges from 2 to 15 days.
Additional Information
The Newcastle Disease (ND) is highly contagious, implying high economic impact, caused by the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) of the Paramyxoviridae family, Rubulavirus genus.

The viral particle is formed by an enveloped nucleocapsid with fusion (F) protein spicules and hemaglutinine-neuramidase (HN) protein. Pathogenicity of the virus varies greatly and the disease may range from a light respiratory tract infection to a 100% mortality rate.

Immunization against ND has been conducted with either live or inactivated virus. Live Newcastle Disease vaccine, with low virulence strain, has the advantage of mass administration and induces both local and cell immune response. Inactivated virus vaccine induces low levels of protection.

Infection by Newcastle Disease virus may occur through either inhalation or ingestion: the virus is present in the air exhaled by the birds, in their faeces and all over the bird carcass during acute infection and death. Due to the occurrence of such diseases, sanitary barriers are established in domestic and foreign trade of birds and their by-products, ensuing large economic losses for countries where the diseases are recorded. Given the economic importance of such pathogens, availability of vaccines is essential to immunize susceptible organisms.