Oryza sativa (Rice, ORYSA) | BCH-ORGA-SCBD-10454 | Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House

Organism (ORGA)
last updated: 21 Feb 2014
Organism information
Oryza sativa
Kingdom Plantae
Phylum Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Order Cyperales
Family Poaceae
Genus Oryza
Species Oryza sativa
  • Rice
Characteristics related to biosafety
The wild progenitors of Oryza sativa are the Asian common wild rices, which show a wide range of variation from perennial to annual types.

Domestication of Asian rice, O. sativa, is considered to have occurred in 15,000 to 10,000 BC. Annual forms might have gradually developed in northeastern and eastern India, northern Southeast Asia and southern China. They spread and diversified to form two ecological groups, Indica and Japonica. Other studies indicate that the two groups were derived independently from the domestication of two divergent wild rices in Southeast Asia and China, respectively.

The wild progenitors of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, are grasses endemic to West Africa. O. glaberrima  is considered to have been domesticated in the Niger River delta.
The genetic diversity of various traits in local cultivars of rice is greatest in the area extending from Assam in India and Bangladesh to Myanmar and northern Thailand, and to Yunnan Province in China. This area is characterised by topographical and hydrological heterogeneity, and is considered the centre of diversity. The primary centre of diversity of O. glaberrima is the swampy basin of the upper Niger.
Rice is now cultivated as far north as the banks of the Amur River (53º N) on the border between Russia and China, and as far south as central Argentina (40º S). It is grown in cool climates in the mountains of Nepal and India, and under irrigation in the hot deserts of Pakistan, Iran and Egypt. It is an upland crop in parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America. At the other environmental extreme are floating rices, which thrive in seasonally deeply flooded areas such as river deltas - the Mekong in Vietnam, the Chao Phraya in Thailand, the Irrawady in Myanmar, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra in Bangladesh and eastern India, for example. Rice can  also be grown in areas with saline, alkali or acid-sulphate soils. Clearly, it is well adapted to diverse growing conditions.
  • Feed
  • Food
Additional Information
Rice is grown worldwide and is a staple food for about a half of the world’s population. It is a nutritious grain crop which contains carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, etc. Rice straw is an important animal feed in many countries.
Records referencing this document Show in search
Record type Field Record(s)
Genetic element Donor organism(s) 30
Living Modified Organism Recipient Organism” or “Parental Organisms 22