RE: Opening of discussions on question 2
Q2. What are some concrete examples, besides the intrinsic value, of the value of biological diversity to indigenous and local communities? How are they linked to possible socio economic effects of LMOs? How can an effect, if any, be assessed?
The Mexico comments regarding to the Question 2, where divided according the suggestions of the moderator Martha Elva German, so we answered each question in a separated way as is shown:
1. What are some concrete examples, besides the intrinsic value, of the value of biological diversity to indigenous and local communities?
Mexico is considered Center of Origin and Genetic Diversity of Maize, our country is the ancestral home of this crop, which has a unique and irreplaceable genetic diversity in the varieties known as landraces, with 70 races of maize1, has various production systems from the most technically advanced systems to multi-cropping system called “Milpa” (mixed crops with local varieties, where most communities of our country has a direct relation with the diversity of maize that are the result of years selection and domestication).
Maize is grown from sea level to 2700 mm altitude; in areas with seasonal rainfall regimes from 250 mm in arid zones and almost 3000 mm in the southeast.
The importance of maize is that it provides countless products for human, livestock, aquaculture and food industry, you can make a whole utilization of the plant, the maize is used in more than 600 food recipes from all over the country, the cane was used in construction, for the carving of figures, medicine, wrap, fertilizer, fuel, refreshing and intoxicant drinks; the leaf for whapping tamales, manufactured ceremonial objects as containers or craft and to tie bunches of herbs and spice, the cob, cob heart, fuel, polishing woods and pottery, and as a plug receptacles; grain, for the production of a hundred food and drink that delight the most discerning palate.
2. How are they linked to possible socio economic effects of LMOs?
The races of maize are linked because its wide genetic diversity, ca be an important reservoir for obtaining genes for the developed of new programs of genetic breeding and new varieties improved through the use of biotechnological tools such as molecular markers, tissue culture and genetic engineering. Such is the case of the development of genetically modified corn plants tolerant to drought, generated by the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the IPN (CINVESTAV) Mexican research institution, whose impacts have been assessed in a first release open field in compliance with the Mexican laws, whose potential impacts can benefit thousands of farmers who plant maize under rainfall conditions that are affected by drought. Such development would include genes isolated from the corn itself and inserted by genetic engineering and more productive homogeneous elite lines. http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle_popup.php?codigo=5276453
3. How can an effect, if any, be assessed?
This situation will have an economic impact both in the development of new varieties and producers of native maize. However to date in Mexico we have not been conducted assessments of socioeconomic impacts, but there are international methodologies that have been used for this purpose among which include:
• Method of net income
• Method of alternative costs
• Method of shadow prices
• Method of Social Accounting Matrices and multisectoral models2
However, we believe that the methodology used has to be specific and must be designed according to local needs, so it is proposed in this Online Forum to define General Guidelines Reference and in each case the economic model is designed more suitable in accordance with the characteristics of the crop, region and these general guidelines, seeking to find a similarity and assessment methodologies risk of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) to methodically analyze the socioeconomic impacts that may be caused by GMOs in an impartial manner.
posted on 2015-04-10 15:54 UTC by Mr. Marco Antonio Caballero Garcia, Mexico