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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2015-11-18 12:05 UTC (katrine@genok.org)
Date of last update
2015-11-30 19:54 UTC (katrine@genok.org)
Date of publication
2016-01-22 12:51 UTC (helmut.gaugitsch@umweltbundesamt.at)

General Information
Biosafety report: Uncertainty and Knowledge Gaps related to Environmental Risk Assessment of GMOs
Nordgård, L. et al.
Author’s contact information
Organization(s) involved in the publication of this resource
GenØk - Centre for Biosafety (previously Norwegian Institute of Gene Ecology) (GenØk)
PB 6418
Science Park
Tromso, Tromso
Norway, 9294
Phone:+47 77 64 66 20
Fax:+47 77 64 61 00
Url:GenØk - Centre for Biosafety
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
This report provides a detailed discussion of uncertainties, knowledge gaps and research needs related to the potential use and introduction of GMOs. It covers GM plants, antibiotic resistance marker genes, GM vaccines, gene therapy and medicinal products containing or consisting of GMOs, as well as GM microorganisms, GM trees and GM salmon.

The report identifies many unresolved scientific uncertainties and potential adverse effects related to GMOs and their impacts on ecosystems, as well as on animal and human health. Particular attention has been given to GMOs relevant in a Norwegian context. The report emphasizes today's challenges, but also outlines needs for the future, as new GMOs are becoming increasingly more complex. Examples of such novel GMOs are discussed under the different subchapters.
Thematic areas
  • Biosafety policy and regulation
    • Precautionary approach (Principle 15 of Rio Declaration)
  • Information sharing and management
    • Additional sources of biosafety information
  • LMO use and transboundary movement
    • LMOs for use as food or feed or for processing
    • LMOs for introduction into the environment (Environmental releases)
    • Field trials
    • Contained use
    • LMOs for pharmaceuticals
    • Unintentional transboundary movement
  • Public awareness, education and participation
    • Public awareness
    • Public participation
  • Scientific and technical issues
    • Risk assessment
    • Risk management
    • Food and feed safety
    • Human health
    • Environmental Monitoring
  • Socio-economic and trade issues
    • Bioethics
    • Coexistence
    • Social and/or economic assessments
Background material to the “Guidance on risk assessment of living modified organisms”
Is this document is recommend as background material for the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms”
Section(s) of the “Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms” this background material is relevant
  • Related issues
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Report / Review / Fact sheet / Notes
Publisher and its location
GenØk - Centre for Biosafety, Tromsø, norway
Copyright GenØk. Free to use for educational and non-profit purposes. Contact GenØk before translation.
Requires Acrobat Reader for viewing. A4. 167 pages, 12,5 MB.
original document