IND-1ØØØ3-4 - Chymosin-producing safflower | BCH-LMO-SCBD-259217 | Living Modified Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House


Living Modified Organism (LMO)

Decisions on the LMO Risk Assessments  
last updated: 11 Feb 2022
Living Modified Organism identity
The image below identifies the LMO through its unique identifier, trade name and a link to this page of the BCH. Click on it to download a larger image on your computer. For help on how to use it go to the LMO quick-links page.
Chymosin-producing safflower
The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) was modified for the production of Bos taurus chymosin in seed tissues. The enzyme is used in the production of cheese products to coagulate (clot) milk. In addition to the production of the enzyme, the safflower expresses Streptomyces viridochromogenes phosphinothricin N-acetyaltransferase for glufosinate selection during transformation.
The term “Recipient organism” refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas “Parental organisms” refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
  • IND-1ØØ15-7 - Chymosin-producing safflower
    | INDEAR S.A. | Resistance to herbicides (Glufosinate), Selectable marker genes and reporter genes, Use in industrial applications
Characteristics of the modification process
  • Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer
Some of these genetic elements may be present as fragments or truncated forms. Please see notes below, where applicable.
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-259197-1 Phaseolin promoter | Phaseolus vulgaris (String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean , PHAVU)
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-259199-1 Pathogenesis-related protein R transit peptide | Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco, TOBAC )
    Transit signal
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-259200-1 Chymosin | Bos taurus - Cow, Cattle, Bull, Auroch, Oxen, Bullocks
    Protein coding sequence | Use in industrial applications
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-104364-1 Phaseolin 3' Terminator | Phaseolus vulgaris (String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean , PHAVU)
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-115654-2 Ubiquitin 4-2 promoter | Petroselinum crispum - Parsley
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-15002-4 Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene | Streptomyces viridochromogenes (STRVR)
    Protein coding sequence | Resistance to herbicides (Glufosinate)
  • BCH-GENE-SCBD-259201-1 Ubiquitin terminator | Petroselinum crispum - Parsley
The modified safflower contains two gene cassettes: Bos taurus chymosin (cym) and Streptomyces viridochromogenes phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (pat).

The cym coding sequence is under control of the Phaseolus vulgaris phaseolin promoter and terminator. The coding sequence additionally contains a pathogenesis-related protein R transit peptide, which will direct the CYM protein to the apoplast of seed tissues. Expression of the cym coding sequence is expected to be restricted to seed tissues. 

The pat coding sequence is under control of the Petroselinum crispum ubiquitin promoter and terminator. Due to the constitutive nature of the promoter, high levels are transcription are expected. 

  • Southern blot and PCR analyses indicated that the genome contain a single T-DNA insertion.
  • Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that a duplication of 1064 basepairs of the phaseolin promoter. The sequence is in the reverse orientation and lacks the region responsible for the start of transcription. Therefore, this duplicated sequence is not expected to have transcriptional function.
  • Next generation sequencing additionally indicated that functional phaseolin promoter contained a 514 basepair deletion distal to the transcriptional start region. However, expression of cym does not seem to be compromised. 
  • Sequencing indicated that none of the plasmid backbone sequences were integrated into the safflower genome.
LMO characteristics
  • Pharmaceutical
Detection method(s)
Additional Information