Phaseolus vulgaris (String bean, French bean, Kidney bean, Common Bean , PHAVU) | BCH-ORGA-SCBD-104363 | Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House

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Organism (ORGA)

published: 13 Nov 2012 last updated: 28 Mar 2023
Organism information
Phaseolus vulgaris
Kingdom Viridiplantae
Phylum Streptophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae
Subfamily Papilionoideae
Genus Phaseolus
Species vulgaris
  • String bean
  • French bean
  • Kidney bean
  • Common Bean
Characteristics related to biosafety
Domesticated independently in central America and in the Andes.

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World, according phytogeographic approach developed by Vavilov (1951). which assumes that P. vulgaris was independently domesticated in Mesoamerica and in the southern Andes (Gepts, 1998; Gepts et al., 2008; McClean et al., 2008; Kwak et al., 2009; Aragão et al., 2011).

A secondary center of diversity is found in the highlands of Peru. It has also been proposed an additional domestication centre in Colombia.
The morphological evidence indicates that the wild bean, from which the common bean originated, is widely distributed in the United States and western to northeastern Mexico Argentina in about 7,000 miles of mountainous areas, but not in Brazil. The germplasm grown beans can be divided into a variable number of rows according to two systems proposed by Evans (1973) and Singh (1989).
Phaseolus vulgaris prefers full sun and fertile, well-drained soils. The beans prefer soils with high organic matter content. The bean forms symbiotic relationships between the nodules on their roots and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). The beans originate in tropical regions and thus are sensitive to frost.
The commercial production of beans is well-distributed worldwide, with countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, South and North America all among the top bean growers.
Raw or undercooked beans can cause severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea due to the presence of phytohaemagglutinin and alpha lectin,
  • Feed
  • Food
Additional Information
Commercially, most beans in the genus are classified as (1) pod/snap beans (string beans, stringless beans, pole beans or wax beans in tender tasty immature pods), (2) shell beans (pod is not eaten, but beans are shelled from the pod when swollen and somewhat dry but prior to full maturity) or (3) dry beans (removed from the pod at full maturity only after totally drying and beginning to rattle around inside the pod).