Brazil | BCH-RA-BR-45581 | Risk Assessment generated by a regulatory process | Biosafety Clearing-House

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Risk Assessment generated by a regulatory process (RA)

last updated: 27 Mar 2013
General Information
Risk Assessment for Insect Resistant Maize
Risk assessment details
Methodology and points to consider
This maize express the heterologous protein Cry1Ab. The protein is toxic only for the mentioned
target insects, specifically to lepidopteron (worms) that
exclusively have in their intestines specific receptors for
this protein. Mammals do not have these receptors, or
connection places, and, therefore, human beings, animals,
and other organisms that are not target are not affected by
protein Bt, including other arthropods and also natural
enemies of target-plagues. The protein sequence was
compared to data banks of protein with allergenic
properties, and no biologically meaningful homology was
demonstrated between protein Cry1Ab as a whole and
sequences of proteins with these properties. Due to
digestibility characteristics of protein Cry1Ab on gastric
and intestinal fluids, the probability that it presents
allergenic action is extremely low. It is improbable that
exogenous DNA may integrate itself to human genome, for DNA
molecule is disintegrated during the digestion process, and
would hardly stay intact to be used by the human or animal
body cells. The introduction of gene cry1Ab did not result
on apparent alteration of nutritional importance, for the
profiles of the main nutrients were similar to those
normally observed in other varieties, or under distinct
conditions of cultivation.
Various studies
results have shown that corn MON810 does not cause negative
impact over the community of non-targeted evaluated
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Zea mays L., the corn, is a species that belongs to Maydae
tribe that is included in the sub-family Panicoideae,
Gramineae family (Poaceae). The genders belonging to Maydae
tribe include Zea and Tripsacum in the Western Hemisphere.
Corn is a separate species within Zea sub-gender, with
chromosome number 2n = 20,21,22,24 (15). The sylvan species
closer to corn is teosinte, found in Mexico and in some
places in Central America, where it can be crossed with
corn cultivated in production fields. The corn produced can
also be crossed with the most distant genre Tripsacum. This
crossing, however, occurs with great difficulty and results
on sterile-male progeny.
Corn history is over eight thousand years old in the
Americas. Out of all the cultivated plants, it is probably
the one that has the greatest genetic variety. Today, there
are around 300 races of corn, and within each race,
thousands of crops. Corn is nowadays, the cultivated
species that reached the highest degree of domestication
and only survives in nature when it is cultivated by
men(6). The maintenance of this genetic variability has
been usually made through individualized storage, in
germoplasm banks, with controlled conditions of humidity
and temperature. There are many germoplasm banks in
Brazil, and in the world. Embrapa has two germoplasm banks,
one at Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, in
Brasília-DF, and another one at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum,
in Sete Lagoas-MG. Corn is commercially cultivated in over
100 countries, with a total production estimated in 705
million tons/year.
Molecular traditional methods
Additional information
Records referencing this document Show in search
Record type Field Record(s)
Country's Decision or any other Communication Risk assessment 1