ACS-GMØØ3-1 - Herbicide-tolerant soybean | BCH-LMO-SCBD-14854 | Living Modified Organism | Biosafety Clearing-House


Living Modified Organism (LMO)

Decisions on the LMO Risk Assessments  
last updated: 18 Jan 2013
Living Modified Organism identity
The image below identifies the LMO through its unique identifier, trade name and a link to this page of the BCH. Click on it to download a larger image on your computer. For help on how to use it go to the LMO quick-links page.
Herbicide-tolerant soybean
The soybean line GU262 was genetically engineered to express tolerance to glufosinate ammonium, the active ingredient in phosphinothricin herbicides (Basta®, Rely®, Finale®, and Liberty®). Glufosinate chemically resembles the amino acid glutamate and acts to inhibit an enzyme, called glutamine synthetase, which is involved in the synthesis of glutamine. Essentially, glufosinate acts enough like glutamate, the molecule used by glutamine synthetase to make glutamine, that it blocks the enzyme's usual activity. Glutamine synthetase is also involved in ammonia detoxification. The action of glufosinate results in reduced glutamine levels and a corresponding increase in concentrations of ammonia in plant tissues, leading to cell membrane disruption and cessation of photosynthesis resulting in plant withering and death.

Glufosinate tolerance in GU262 soybean is the result of introducing a gene encoding the enzyme phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) isolated from the common aerobic soil actinomycete, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, the same organism from which glufosinate was originally isolated. The PAT enzyme catalyzes the acetylation of phosphinothricin, detoxifying it into an inactive compound. The PAT enzyme is not known to have any toxic properties. The pat gene was introduced into the soybean genome by micro-particle acceleration (biolistic) transformation, and the resulting soybean line, GU262, displayed field tolerance to phosphinothricin-containing herbicides, thereby permitting farmers to use this herbicide for weed control in soybean cultivation
The term “Recipient organism” refers to an organism (either already modified or non-modified) that was subjected to genetic modification, whereas “Parental organisms” refers to those that were involved in cross breeding or cell fusion.
Characteristics of the modification process
pB2/35SAcK (AKA: pWRG5143)
  • Biolistic / Particle gun
Some of these genetic elements may be present as fragments or truncated forms. Please see notes below, where applicable.
The PAT gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes was synthetically modified with plant preferred codons.

Partial sequences of the 5' end of the ampicillin resistance beta-lactamase gene were also integrated into the host genome
LMO characteristics
  • Food
Detection method(s)
Southern blot analysis indicated that two complete copies of the PAT expression cassette were integrated into the host genome.
Additional Information
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